This document provides a full list of trait definitions used in AusTraits version 3.0.2, as defined in the file configuration files config/definitions.yml.

accessory_cost_mass

  • label: Mass of seed accessory costs
  • description: Mass of seed accessory costs, the proportion of a fruit that does not develop into a seed
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10000 mg

accessory_cost_fraction

  • label: Fraction of total reproductive investment to non-seed tissues
  • description: Fraction of total reproductive investment required to mature a seed that is invested in non-seed tissues
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 mg/mg

bark_delta13C

  • label: Bark carbon (C) isotope signature (delta 13C)
  • description: Bark carbon stable isotope signature
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -50 - 0 per mille

bark_delta15N

  • label: Bark nitrogen (N) isotope signature (delta 15N)
  • description: Bark nitrogen stable isotope signature
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -25 - 75 per mille

bark_mass_area

  • label: Bark mass per unit surface area of stem
  • description: Bark mass per unit surface area of stem
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/cm2
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 g/cm2

bark_density

  • label: Bark dry mass per unit fresh bark volume
  • description: Bark dry mass per unit bark fresh volume (bark density)
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mm3
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1.1 mg/mm3

bark_C_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark carbon (C) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark carbon (C) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 50 - 750 mg/g

bark_N_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark nitrogen (N) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark nitrogen (N) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

bark_P_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark phosphorus (P) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark phosphorus (P) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 10 mg/g

bark_K_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark potassium (K) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark potassium (K) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 mg/g

bark_Al_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark aluminium (Al) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark aluminium (Al) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 mg/g

bark_B_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark boron (B) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark boron (B) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 mg/g

bark_Ca_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark calcium (Ca) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark calcium (Ca) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

bark_Cu_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark copper (Cu) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark copper (Cu) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 1e-04 - 1 mg/g

bark_Fe_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark iron (Fe) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark iron (Fe) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 10 mg/g

bark_Mg_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark magnesium (Mg) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark magnesium (Mg) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 mg/g

bark_Mn_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark manganese (Mn) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark manganese (Mn) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 mg/g

bark_Na_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark sodium (Na) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark sodium (Na) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 mg/g

bark_S_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark sulphur (S) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark sulphur (S) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

bark_Zn_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark zinc (Zn) content per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark zinc (Zn) content per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 10 mg/g

bark_morphology

  • label: Bark morphology
  • description: Description of bark morphology
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • eucalypt_box: Eucalypts with “Box” type bark (including Corymbia and Angophora)
    • eucalypt_gum: Eucalypts with “Gum” type bark (including Corymbia and Angophora)
    • eucalypt_stocking: Eucalypts with “Gum” type bark above a rough barked stocking (including Corymbia and Angophora)
    • eucalypt_ironbark: Eucalypts with “Ironbark” type bark (including Corymbia and Angophora)
    • eucalypt_peppermint: Eucalypts with “Peppermint” type bark (including Corymbia and Angophora)
    • eucalypt_stringybark: Eucalypts with “Stringy” type bark (including Corymbia and Angophora)
    • eucalypt_ribbonbark: Eucalypts with “Gum” type bark that sheds in ribbons (including Corymbia and Angophora)

bark_thickness

  • label: Bark thickness
  • description: Thickness of the bark of the stem
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 50 mm

bark_ash_content_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark ash content per dry mass
  • description: Bark ash content per dry mass, where bark ash is the component of the bark remaining after combustion.
  • type: numeric
  • units: %
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 %

bark_cellulose_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark cellulose per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark cellulose per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mg
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1 mg/mg

bark_lignin_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark lignin per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark lignin per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 mg/mg

bark_tannin_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark tannins (polyphenols) per unit bark dry mass
  • description: Bark tannins (polyphenols) per unit bark dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mg
  • allowable range: 1e-05 - 1 mg/mg

branch_mass_fraction

  • label: Fraction of plant dry mass comprised of branch material
  • description: Fraction of plant dry mass comprised of branch material
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mg
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 mg/mg

sprout_depth

  • label: Depth below ground (negative number) or height above ground (positive number) from which buds emerge following a disturbance (i.e. fire)
  • description: Depth of resprouting shoots
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: -100 - 100 mm

calcicole_status

  • label: Calcicole versus calcifuge status
  • description: Dichotonmous variable, defining plants as calcifuge (intolerant of basic soils) versus calcicole (tolerant of basic soils, such as calcareous sands and limestone derived soils)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • calcicole: tolerant of basic soils, such as calcareous sands and limestone derived soils
    • calcifuge: intolerant of basic soils

carotenoid_per_area

  • label: Leaf carotenoid content per unit leaf area
  • description: Leaf carotenoid content per unit leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/m2
  • allowable range: 10 - 1000 umol/m2

carotenoid_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf carotenoid content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf carotenoid content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmol/kg
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 10 mmol/kg

cell_cross-sectional_area

  • label: Cell cross sectional area
  • description: Cell cross sectional area
  • type: numeric
  • units: um2
  • allowable range: 100 - 10000 um2

cell_epidermis_Ca_per_fresh_mass

  • label: Ca content of epidermal cells
  • description: Ca content of epidermal cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 500 umol/g

cell_hypodermis_Ca_per_fresh_mass

  • label: Ca content of hypodermis cells
  • description: Ca content of hypodermis cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 500 umol/g

cell_internal_parenchyma_Ca_per_fresh_mass

  • label: Ca content of internal parenchyma cells
  • description: Ca content of internal parenchyma cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 500 umol/g

cell_palisade_mesophyll_Ca_per_fresh_mass

  • label: Ca content of palisade mesophyll cells
  • description: Ca content of palisade mesophyll cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 umol/g

cell_sclerenchyma_Ca_per_fresh_mass

  • label: Ca content of sclerenchyma cells
  • description: Ca content of sclerenchyma cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 umol/g

cell_spongy_mesophyll_Ca_per_fresh_mass

  • label: Ca content of spongy mesophyll cells
  • description: Ca content of spongy mesophyll cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 1000 umol/g

cell_epidermis_P_per_fresh_mass

  • label: P content of epidermal cells
  • description: P content of epidermal cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 0 - 10 umol/g

cell_hypodermis_P_per_fresh_mass

  • label: P content of hypodermis cells
  • description: P content of hypodermis cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 0 - 10 umol/g

cell_internal_parenchyma_P_per_fresh_mass

  • label: P content of internal parenchyma cells
  • description: P content of internal parenchyma cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 0 - 10 umol/g

cell_palisade_mesophyll_P_per_fresh_mass

  • label: P content of palisade mesophyll cells
  • description: P content of palisade mesophyll cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 0 - 30 umol/g

cell_rubisco_concentration

  • label: N content of Rubisco
  • description: Concentration of Rubisco
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 5 - 50 mg/g

cell_rubisco_N_per_total_N

  • label: Percentage of N accounted for by Rubisco
  • description: Percentage of N accounted for by Rubisco
  • type: numeric
  • units: %
  • allowable range: 5 - 50 %

cell_sclerenchyma_P_per_fresh_mass

  • label: P content of sclerenchyma cells
  • description: P content of sclerenchyma cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 0 - 10 umol/g

cell_spongy_mesophyll_P_per_fresh_mass

  • label: P content of spongy mesophyll cells
  • description: P content of spongy mesophyll cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 0 - 30 umol/g

cell_thylakoid_N_per_total_N

  • label: Percentage of N accounted for by thylakoid proteins
  • description: Percentage of N accounted for by thylakoid proteins
  • type: numeric
  • units: %
  • allowable range: 5 - 30 %

chlorophyll_per_area

  • label: Sum of chlorophyll A and B per leaf area
  • description: Sum of chlorophyll A and B per leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/m2
  • allowable range: 10 - 2000 umol/m2

chlorophyll_A_per_area

  • label: Leaf chlorophyll A content per leaf area
  • description: Leaf chlorophyll A content per leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/m2
  • allowable range: 50 - 2000 umol/m2

chlorophyll_B_per_area

  • label: Leaf chlorophyll B content per leaf area
  • description: Leaf chlorophyll B content per leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/m2
  • allowable range: 10 - 1000 umol/m2

chlorophyll_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmol/kg
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 15 mmol/kg

chlorophyll_A_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf chlorophyll A content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf chlorophyll A content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmol/kg
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 10 mmol/kg

chlorophyll_B_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf chlorophyll B content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf chlorophyll B content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmol/kg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 mmol/kg

chlorophyll_A_B_ratio

  • label: Ratio of leaf chlorophyll A to chlorophyll B
  • description: Ratio of leaf chlorophyll A to chlorophyll B
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/umol
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 6 umol/umol

ca

  • label: ambient CO2 concentration
  • description: Ambient CO2 concentration (external CO2 concentration)
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/mol
  • allowable range: 50 - 1000 umolCO2/mol

cc

  • label: CO2 concentration inside chloroplasts
  • description: CO2 concentration inside chloroplasts
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/umol
  • allowable range: 50 - 1000 umolCO2/umol

ci_at_ambient

  • label: internal CO2 concentration under ambient conditions
  • description: CO2 concentration in interstitial spaces under ambient conditions
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/mol
  • allowable range: 50 - 1300 umolCO2/mol

ci_at_Amax

  • label: internal CO2 concentration during Amax measurement
  • description: CO2 concentration in interstitial spaces during Amax measurement
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/mol
  • allowable range: 50 - 2100 umolCO2/mol

ci_at_Asat

  • label: internal CO2 concentration during Asat measurement
  • description: CO2 concentration in interstitial spaces during Asat measurement
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/mol
  • allowable range: 10 - 1300 umolCO2/mol

ci_over_ca

  • label: Ratio of internal to external CO2 concentrations
  • description: Ratio of internal to external CO2 concentrations
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2 internal/umolCO2 ambient
  • allowable range: 0 - 1.3 umolCO2 internal/umolCO2 ambient

competitive_stratum

  • label: Competitive stratum
  • description: Categorical descriptions of a taxon’s relative stature in its community, used to assess competitive heirarchies within a community (definition based on Keith 2007, Gosper 2012)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • ground: Graminoids, herbs and ferns reaching maximum heights of c. 0.2–1 m
    • mid: Shrubs reaching maximum heights of c. 1–2 m
    • upper: Tall shrubs reaching maximum heights of c. 3–5 m
    • post_fire_ephemeral: Taxa that avoid competition with other strata by rapidly completing their life cycle after fire; a sub-category of ‘ground’

cotyledon_function

  • label: Cotyledon function
  • description: Cotyledon function
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • foliaceous: Cotyledons are photosynthetic and function as leaves.
    • reserve: Cotyledons function as energy reserve organs.

cotyledon_position

  • label: Cotyledon position at germination
  • description: Binary variable distinguishing between seedlings where the cotyledon remains within the seed coat versus emerges from the seed coat at germination.
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • cryptocotylar: A type of seed germination in which the cotyledons remain within the seed coat at germination.
    • phanerocotylar: A type of seed germination in which the cotyledons emerge from the seed coat.

cotyledon_type

  • label: Cotyledon type
  • description: Binary variable distinguishing between glabrous versus hairy cotyledons
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • glabrous: Cotyledon lacks hairs
    • hairy: Cotyledon has hairs

seedling_germination_location

  • label: Seedling germination location
  • description: Binary variable distinguishing between seedlings that germinate above versus below ground.
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • epigeal: Germinant with one or more cotyledons emerging aboveground.
    • hypogeal: Germinant with all cotyledons remaining belowground.

establishment_light_environment_index

  • label: Canopy light environment required for seedling establishment
  • description: The light environment required by seedlings for establishment, scaled from 0 to 8, where 0 indicates no direct light and extremely low transmitted light and 8 indicates full exposure of >80% of the crown area to direct light (referenced Wells 2012).
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0 - 8 dimensionless

reproductive_light_environment_index

  • label: Canopy light environment required for reproduction
  • description: The canopy light environment required for reproduction, scaled from 0 to 8, where 0 indicates no direct light and extremely low transmitted light and 8 indicates full exposure of >80% of the crown area to direct light (referenced Wells 2012).
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0 - 8 dimensionless

upper_cuticle_thickness

  • label: Upper cuticle thickness
  • description: Thickness of the upper cuticle
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 um

lower_cuticle_thickness

  • label: Lower cuticle thickness
  • description: Thickness of the lower cuticle
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 um

diaspore_mass

  • label: Mass of entire diaspore
  • description: Mass of seed including dispersal appendages
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 10000 mg

dispersal_appendage

  • label: Appendage of propagule which facilitates dispersal
  • description: Type of dispersal appendage present
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • aril: Fleshy outgrowth of a seed, that often attracts animals like birds or ants
    • awns: A slender, bristle-like projection, e.g. from the back or tip of the glumes and lemmas in some grasses and on the fruit of some other taxa.
    • awn_bristle: REPLACE WITH ‘awns bristles’
    • barbs: A rear-facing point, as in a fish hook that aid in seed and fruit dispersal. Includes “hooks”, a term used in Ranunculus
    • beak: Name of dispersal appendage in the genus Carex
    • berry: Maybe referring to the wings present on the pollen grains of some conifers to aid in their dispersal by wind
    • bladdery_wings: Bristle-like projections
    • bristles: REPLACE WITH ‘bracts’
    • bract: When the bracts below the inflorescence are the dispersal appendage. For the family Poaceae “bract” refers to the glumes, the modified membranous bracts surrounding the spikelet of a grass.
    • bracts: A type of eliasome, term especially used in the family Euphorbiaceae; an outgrowth or appendage at or near the hilum of certain seeds that aids in dispersal. Includes “strophiole”
    • caruncle: A curved, slender awn
    • curved_awn: Dry fruit that dehisces in some manner
    • dry_dehiscent: Fruit with membranous exocarp, fleshy mesocarp and hard endocarp
    • drupe: Fleshy (often fatty) appendage on seeds that attracts ants
    • elaiosome: Wing-line seed extentions that enclose the seed
    • enclosing_wing: A seed that lacks an aril
    • exarillate: When a feathery style aids in seed dispersal
    • feathery_style: A fleshy fruit that splits open and releases seeds at maturity; fruit type
    • fleshy_dehiscent_capsule: A fruit where part or all of the pericarp (fruit wall) is fleshy at maturity; fruit type
    • fleshy_fruit: A fruit whose capsule or wings are fleshy
    • fleshy_wings_capsule: Seed that is dispersed by floating on water
    • floating_seed: When a plant’s floral parts, the petals and/or sepals, are persistent and aid in seed and fruit dispersal
    • floral_parts: The stalk that joins the seed to the pod frame; aids in dispersal when persistent
    • funicle: The modified membranous bracts surrounding the spikelet of a grass; also see ‘bract’
    • glumes: Modified hairs aid in seed dispersal
    • hairs: Fruit that does not open at maturity in a pre-defined way, but instead relies on predation or decomposition to release the seeds;fruit type
    • indehiscent: When some part of the seed, fruit, or associated tissues is inflated, aiding in seed or fruit dispersal
    • inflated_parts: When a fruit and associated tissues lack any dispersal appendages; see also exarillate
    • none: unknown meaning; currently used only for “Brachyscome dentata”
    • paddles: The pappus is the modified calyx, the part of an individual floret, that surrounds the base of the corolla tube in flower heads of the plant family Asteraceae
    • pappus: Pappus that is deciduous
    • pappus_deciduous: Exact dispersal mechanism unclear; currently used only for “Crowea saligna” (maybe others now)
    • placental_endocarp: Fruit or seed that has plumes to help with dispersal
    • plumose: UNKNOWN
    • pseudo-wing: UNKNOWN
    • receptacle: A winged achene, a type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall
    • samara: Fleshy seed coat; term especially used for cycads; dispersal appendage?
    • sarcotesta: When scales assist in seed or fruit dispersal
    • scales: Seed containing a sac of air
    • seed_airsac: A seed wing that arises from one side; dispersal appendage
    • seed_unilaterally_winged: Seed wing absent
    • seed_wing_obsolete: Modified short hairs aid in seed dispersal
    • short_hairs: Spines that aid in seed and fruit dispersal
    • spines: Outgrowth of the hilum region which restricts water movement into and out of some seeds, especially legumes
    • strophiole: REPLACE WITH ‘strophiole’
    • strophiole_on_seed: Cases where a taxon’s style, stigma or carpel are persistent and aid in seed or fruit dispersal
    • style: A fruit where some tissue layers have become flattened and papery to function as wings; includes reference to a winged nut and winged achene (samara); fruit type
    • winged_fruit: Referring to wing-like seed extensions that aid in wind dispersal
    • wings: Referring to small wing-like seed extensions that aid in wind dispersal
    • wings_small: UNSURE; assume it refers to conifers, where woody bracts protect the seeds
    • woody_bract_scales: Fleshy outgrowth of a seed, that often attracts animals like birds or ants

dispersal_syndrome

  • label: Dispersal syndrome
  • description: Type of dispersal syndrome displayed by taxon, although the list includes many dispersal appendages and fruit types. Many definitions come from Kew Botanic Gardens website.
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • adhesion: Dispersal syndrome where fruit is transported by attaching itself to something, usually an animal; true dispersal syndrome; will overlap with exozoochory; also called epizoochory
    • anemochory: Dispersal by wind; true dispersal syndrome
    • animal_vector: Seeds are dispersed by an animal; true dispersal syndrome; should be replaced with zoochory
    • aril: Fleshy outgrowth of a seed, that often attracts animals like birds or ants; dispersal appendage
    • atelochory: Dispersal is prevented; also called antitelochory
    • ballistic: Seeds are launched away from the plant by explosion as soon as the seed capsule opens; true dispersal syndrome
    • barochory: Seeds are dispersed without assistance; true dispersal syndrome
    • barochory_small_seeds: Small seeds (<0.1 mg) that are dispersed without assistance; true dispersal syndrome
    • bird: Seed dispersed by birds
    • chamaechory: diaspore is rolled along ground surface by wind
    • dispersal_rare: Plant rarely produces propagules; mostly reproduces through vegetative spread
    • dyszoochory: diaspore is eaten intentionally by an animal
    • elaiosome: Fleshy (often fatty) appendage on seeds that attracts ants; dispersal appendage
    • endozoochory: Diaspores that dispersed through ingestion by animals, either intentionally or unintentionally and are transported before dropping off; includes the term ingestion; true dispersal syndrome
    • endozoochory_mammal: Diaspores that dispersed through ingestion by mammals, either intentionally or unintentionally and are transported before dropping off; includes the term ingestion; true dispersal syndrome
    • endozoochory_bird: Diaspores that dispersed through ingestion by birds, either intentionally or unintentionally and are transported before dropping off; includes the term ingestion; true dispersal syndrome
    • exozoochory: When seeds are dispersed on the surface of an animal; will overlap significantly with the terms adhesion and animal_vector
    • exozoochory_mammal: When seeds are dispersed on the surface of a mammal
    • exozoochory_bird: When seeds are dispersed on the surface of a bird
    • fleshy_fruit: A fruit where part or all of the pericarp (fruit wall) is fleshy at maturity; fruit type
    • fleshy_wings_capsule: A fruit whose capsule or wings are fleshy
    • gravity: seed/fruit drops from plant
    • hydrochory: Dispersal on the surface of water; see also the term water; true dispersal syndrome
    • insect: Dispersal by ant or termite
    • invertebrate: Dispersal by invertebrate other than insects
    • invertebrate_insect: Dispersal by invertebrates including insects
    • mammal: Dispersed by mammals by unspecified mechanisms
    • mobile: use ‘unassisted’
    • mud_on_cars: Dispersules with elaiosomes (specialised nutritious appendages) that make them attractive for capture, transport and use by ants or related insects; true dispersal syndrome
    • myrmecochory: water; e.g. floating/submerged in fresh/saltwater currents
    • nautohydrochory: water; diaspore is propelled by action of rain on plant structure/wetting by rain or dew
    • ombrohydrochory: methods originating from parent plant or diaspore
    • parent_plant_or_diaspore: animal; diaspore is carried intentionally
    • synzoochory: Mobile; Seeds are dispersed without assistance; true dispersal syndrome; same as barochory or passive; seeds drop to the ground close to or beneath the parent plant
    • unassisted: UNKNOWN
    • undefined: Seeds are dispersed by a vertebrate; true dispersal syndrome
    • vertebrate: Seeds dispersal depends in some way on water; should use hydrochory instead
    • water: Seeds are dispersed by wind; true dispersal syndrome; should use anemochory instead
    • wind: wetting by rain or dew; also called hygrochasy
    • xerochasywater: Dispersal syndrome where fruit is transported by attaching itself to something, usually an animal; true dispersal syndrome; will overlap with exozoochory; also called epizoochory

dispersers

  • label: Fruit dispersal agents
  • description: Fruit dispersal agents
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • aborigines: aboriginal people
    • ants: ants
    • bats: bats
    • birds: birds
    • cassowary: species explicitly dispersed by cassowaries (vs. all other birds)
    • flying: flying birds and bats
    • flying_foxes: flying foxes
    • invertebrate: invertebrate
    • mammals: mammals
    • non-flying: mammals and non-flying birds (i.e. cassowary)
    • passive: no dispersal agent
    • rodents: rodents
    • vertebrate: vertebrate
    • wind: wind
    • water: water

dormancy_type

  • label: Dormancy type
  • description: Classification for seed dormancy
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • morphophysiological_dormancy: Seeds exhibit morphophysiological dormancy
    • non_dormant: Seeds are non-dormant
    • physical_dormancy: Seeds exhibit physical dormancy
    • physiological_dormancy: Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy

embryo_colour

  • label: Embryo colour
  • description: Binary variable distinguishing between embryos that are green versus colourless
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • colourless: Colourless embryo
    • green: Green embryo

epidermal_cell_density_abaxial

  • label: Epidermal cell density on the lower leaf surface
  • description: Epidermal cell density on the lower leaf surface
  • type: numeric
  • units: count/mm2
  • allowable range: 100 - 10000 count/mm2

epidermal_cell_density_adaxial

  • label: Epidermal cell density on the upper leaf surface
  • description: Epidermal cell density on the upper leaf surface
  • type: numeric
  • units: count/mm2
  • allowable range: 100 - 10000 count/mm2

epidermal_cell_density_both_sides

  • label: Epidermal cell density averaged across the upper and lower leaf surfaces
  • description: Epidermal cell density averaged across the upper and lower leaf surfaces
  • type: numeric
  • units: count/mm2
  • allowable range: 100 - 10000 count/mm2

epidermis_thickness

  • label: Thickness of the epidermis, leaf surface not specified
  • description: Thickness of the epidermis, leaf surface not specified
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 um

epidermis_thickness_upper_leaf_surface

  • label: Thickness of the epidermis on the upper leaf surface
  • description: Thickness of the epidermis on the upper leaf surface
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 um

epidermis_thickness_lower_leaf_surface

  • label: Thickness of the epidermis on the lower leaf surface
  • description: Thickness of the epidermis on the lower leaf surface
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 um

fire_response

  • label: Resprouts or is killed by fire
  • description: Distinguishes between plants that are killed by fire and resprout following fire
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • fire_killed: Plants killed by hot fires
    • resprouts: Plants resprout from underground storage organ following fire. (For studies that don’t differentiate between respouting strength)
    • not_fire_killed_does_not_resprout: Plants that are rarely killed by a moderate-intensity fire, but do not resprout
    • fire_not_relevant: Plant never affected by fire (for aquatic taxon)
    • unknown: Fire status assessed, but unknown

fire_response_detailed

  • label: Resprouts or is killed by fire
  • description: Detailed information distinguishing between plants that are killed by fire and resprout following fire
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • fire_killed: Plants killed by hot fires
    • weak_resprouting: Plant shows weak resprouting following fire
    • intermediate_resprouting: Plant shows intermediate resprouting following fire
    • strong_resprouting: Plant shows strong resprouting following fire

fire_response_juvenile

  • label: Juvenile plants resprout or killed by file
  • description: Variable summarising how juvenile plants respond to fire
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • juvenile_fire_killed: Juvenile plants killed by fires
    • juvenile_resprout: Juvenile plants survive and resprout following fire
    • juvenile_most_fire_killed: Fewer than 25% of juvenile plants resprout following fire
    • juvenile_moderate_fire_killed: 25-50% of juvenile plants resprout following fire
    • juvenile_low_fire_killed: More than 50% of juvenile plants resprout following fire

fire_response_on_maturity

  • label: Plants’ maturity status after fire
  • description: Variable summarising how plants’ maturity status changes following fire
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • remain_mature: Mature plants remain mature following fire
    • mature_to_juvenile: Mature plants become juvenile following fire
    • mature_do_not_resprout: Mature plants do not resprout following fire

fire_cued_seeding

  • label: Fire-cued seeding
  • description: Distinguishes between plants that do and do not have fire-cued seeding
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • fire_cued_seeding: Plants that germinate robustly following fire; or number of seedlings not specified
    • fire_cued_seeding_minimal: A small number of seedlings present post-fire
    • fire_cued_seeding_moderate: A moderate number of seedlings present post-fire
    • fire_cued_seeding_high: A high number of seedlings present post-fire
    • fire_cued_seeding_complete_germination: The entire seedbank germinates following fire; no seedbank remains
    • fire_cued_seeding_incomplete_germination: Only part of the seedbank germinates following fire
    • no_fire_cued_seeding: Plants that do not show increased seeding following fire

fire_and_establishing

  • label: Post-fire establishment
  • description: Variable capturing post-fire time frame during which species establishes. Includes trait values for a broad range of responses, from species that establish immediately following fire to those that only establish in mature forest stands.
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • establish_just_after_fire_only: Plants establish immediately after a fire (within the first 2 seasons, and usually within the first season), but cannot continue recruitment as the vegetation ages further, unable to establish in mature vegetation
    • establish_intermediate_age: Plants can only establish at an intermediate stage, ie. cannot establish straight after fire nor in mature to over-mature vegetation.
    • establish_just_after_fire_and_mature_vegetation: Plants able to establish immediately after fire and also in mature to over-mature vegetation, cannot establish in intermediate aged vegetation
    • establish_just_after_fire_and_intermediate_age: Plants able to establish immediately after fire and also in intermediate aged vegetation.
    • establish_intermediate_to_over_mature_vegetation: Plants unable to establish immediately after fire (within the first season or two), but can establish in older vegetation (including mature to over-mature vegetation), requires some environmental charateristics not found in vegetation straight after fires
    • establish_anytime: Plants can establish immediately after fire and in later years as vegetation ages, right thru to mature and over-mature vegetation (assuming suitable seasonal conditions)

fire_flame_duration

  • label: Flame duration for a single leaf.
  • description: Flame duration for a single leaf. Time from the first visible flame until no more flames could be seen (seconds)
  • type: numeric
  • units: seconds
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 200 seconds

fire_fuel_bed_bulk_density

  • label: Fuel bed bulk density.
  • description: Fuel bed bulk density. This is the mass of the fuel bed, divided by the guel bed volumne.
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/cm3
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 g/cm3

fire_fuel_comsumption

  • label: Proportion of fuel that was consumed by fire
  • description: Proportion of fuel that was consumed by fire.
  • type: numeric
  • units: %
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 %

fire_rate_of_spread

  • label: Rate of spread.
  • description: Rate of spread. How fast the fire moves across the landscape.
  • type: numeric
  • units: cm/s
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 cm/s

fire_smoulder_duration

  • label: Smoulder duration for a single leaf.
  • description: Smoulder duration for a single leaf. Time from the end of the last visible flame until the glowing phase died out (seconds)
  • type: numeric
  • units: seconds
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1000 seconds

fire_total_burn_duration

  • label: Sum of flame duration and smoulder duration for a single leaf.
  • description: Sum of flame duration and smoulder duration for a single leaf.
  • type: numeric
  • units: seconds
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1500 seconds

fire_time_to_ignition

  • label: Time to ignition
  • description: Time to ignition for a single leaf. Time from ignition source contacting leaf (or other material) until ignition occurs.
  • type: numeric
  • units: seconds
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 seconds

flower_colour

  • label: Flower colour
  • description: Flower colour, with six possible outcomes
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • blue_purple: blue or purple
    • green: green flower
    • pink: pink flower
    • red_brown: red or brown flower
    • white_cream: white or cream flower
    • yellow_orange: yellow orange flower

flower_count_maximum

  • label: Maximum flower number
  • description: Maximum flower number produced
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 0 - 1000000 count

flower_N_per_dry_mass

  • label: Flower nitrogen (N) content per unit flower dry mass
  • description: Flower nitrogen (N) content per unit flower dry masshermaphrodite
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.5 - 100 mg/g

flowering_time

  • label: Range of flowering period
  • description: Months during which taxon is flowering; keyed as a sequences of 12 0s (not flowering) and 1s (flowering) starting with January
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • **:

flower_structural_sex_type

  • label: Floral structural sex
  • description: Structural flower sex type. Trait that captures floral sex, distinguishing among three states, bisexual, incompletely unisexual, and unisexual, as defined by Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘100. Floral structural sex (D1)’. (See “sex_type” for plant sex type)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • bisexual: Hermaphrodite; flowers with both male and female reproductive organs
    • incompletely_unisexual: Male flowers with pistillode and/or female flowers with staminodes
    • unisexual: Flowers with either male or female reproductive organs

flower_ovary_position

  • label: Ovary position
  • description: The ovary is the part of the gynoecium where the ovules are produced. The ovary may be located on the receptacle and thus be positioned above the insertion level of the remaining floral organs (i.e., the ovary is superior and the flower is hypogynous). Alternatively, the ovary may be embedded in the receptacle and therefore be located below the insertion level of the remaining floral organs (i.e., the ovary is inferior and the flower is epigynous). Flowers with a hypanthium may either have a superior ovary (perigyny; e.g., many Rosaceae) or an inferior ovary (epiperigyny). It is also possible that the ovary is inferior to a certain degree only, such as half-inferior, if the receptacle is surrounding the ovary to its mid-level. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘102. Ovary position (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • inferior: Flower with inferior ovary, where the ovary is embedded in the receptacle and therefore located below the insertion level of the remaining floral organs
    • superior: Flower with superior ovary, where the ovary is positioned above the insertion level of the remaining floral organs
    • half_inferior: Flower where the receptacle is surrounded by the ovary to its mid-level
    • one_quarter_inferior: Flower where the receptacle surrounds up to one quarter of the ovary
    • three_quarters_inferior: Flower where the receptacle surrounds more than three quarters of the ovary

flower_perianth_parts_count

  • label: Number of perianth parts
  • description: The total number of perianth parts, including sepals, petals, or any form of tepal. A value of zero was scored when the perianth is absent. In flowers with perianth whorls fused along their complete length (e.g., Convolvulus), perianth parts are counted based on merism (e.g., if a calyx has 5 distinct sepals and the corolla is entirely fused, then the corolla is often interpreted to consist of five fused petals), anatomy (e.g., number of vascular traces), development (e.g., number of primordia), or comparison with closely related taxa. (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘201. Number of perianth parts (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 0 - 1000 count

flower_perianth_fusion

  • label: Fusion of perianth
  • description: Fusion of perianth organs (congenital or postgenital) at anthesis, recorded on a continuous scale, from 0 (free parts) to 1 (parts fused along their entire length). Partial fusion was recorded using an approximate number between these two extremes (e.g., 0.1 corresponds to basal fusion, 0.5 to fusion along half of the length of perianth parts). In case of multiple whorls, this trait records within-whorl fusion. For example, if organs within each whorl are fused along their entire length, a trait value of 1 is recorded. In cases where organs of two whorls are fused into a common tubular structure, such as frequently observed in monocots (e.g., Polygonatum), the perianth is considered to be fused. If the two (or more) whorls differed in their extent of fusion, a range of trait values may be recorded. For example, if the calyx is only basally fused, up to 10% of its length, but the corolla is entirely fused, a range of 0.1 to 1 is recorded as the trait value for the species. (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘204. Fusion of perianth (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: n/n
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 n/n

flower_perianth_symmetry

  • label: Symmetry of perianth
  • description: Trait capturing the symmetry of the perianth. This trait is applied to the perianth as a whole. In case of flowers with two or more perianth whorls, species are considered actinomorphic if all whorls are actinomorphic and as zygomorphic if one or more whorls are zygomorphic. Trait is not applicable when the perianth is missing. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘207. Symmetry of perianth (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • actinomorphic_general: Perianth displaying radial symmetry
    • actinomorphic_rotational: Perianth that can be equally divided into three or more identical sections that, when rotated around the center of the flower by some number of degrees, exactly match each other in orientation and shape.
    • actinomorphic_strictly_polysymmetric: Polysymmetry, with three or more planes of bilateral symmetry
    • actinomorphic_spiral: Perianth lacking a distinct plane of symmetry because their perianth parts are spirally arranged.
    • asymmetric: Perianth lacking any planes of symmetry
    • disymmetric: Perianth with two orthogonal planes of bilateral symmetry
    • zygomorphic: Monosymmetric, with a single plane of bilateral symmetry

flower_perianth_phyllotaxis

  • label: Perianth phyllotaxis
  • description: Perianth phyllotaxis at anthesis. Perianth parts may be organised in one or more whorls or along a continuous spiral, usually with wide divergence angles more or less equal to 137.5 degrees. Less frequently, perianth phyllotaxis may be irregular. Perianth phyllotaxis at anthesis may differ from phyllotaxis of perianth part primordia at their inception and it is not uncommon that spirally initiated perianths become whorled later through development. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘230. Perianth phyllotaxy (D1)’, with more information of differentiating between trait values in this manuscript.)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • irregular: Perianth parts lacking any symmetrical organisation.
    • spiral: Perianth parts organised along a continuous spiral, usually with wide divergence angles more or less equal to 137.5 degrees, the Fibonacci ‘golden angle’
    • whorled: Perianth parts organised in one or more whorls

flower_perianth_whorls_count

  • label: Number of perianth whorls
  • description: The number of perianth whorls as a continuous trait (with integer values of 1 and above). Not applicable when perianth phyllotaxis is spiral or irregular or when the perianth is absent. (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘231. Number of perianth whorls (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 0 - 15 count

flower_perianth_merism

  • label: Number of perianth parts in each whorl (Perianth merism)
  • description: The number of perianth parts in each whorl, recorded as a continuous trait (with integer values of 1 and above). Not applicable when perianth phyllotaxis is spiral or irregular or when the perianth is absent. (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘232. Perianth merism (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 0 - 50 count

flower_perianth_differentiation

  • label: Perianth differentiation
  • description: The ways in which perianth organs may look different from each other in a given flower. Typically, outer perianth parts are sepaloid and protect the other floral organs during floral development, while inner organs are often petaloid and play a role in pollinator attraction (Endress, 1994). However, it is also possible that all parts are either sepaloid or petaloid but remain differentiated in shape, size, and/or texture. In case of spiral perianths, differentiation may be continuous (i.e., gradual), whereby two successively initiated organs are very similar or only slightly different, while the outermost and innermost organs at both ends of the spiral are very different from each other (e.g., Chimonanthus). In the special case of perianths consisting of a single whorl, they are scored as undifferentiated. This perianth differentiation trait may be seen as both functional (the parting vs. sharing of functions among perianth parts) and developmental (the expression of a genetic program for different forms of perianth parts vs. a single program for a single type of perianth part morphology). Within-whorl differentiation, whereby organs of the same whorl take different forms, is common in zygomorphic flowers (e.g., Balsaminaceae, Fabaceae, Orchidaceae) but is not taken into account with this trait. This trait is not applicable when the perianth is absent. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘234. Perianth differentiation (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • undifferentiated: All tepals alike; includes a single undifferentiated whorl
    • marked_differentiation_outer_sepaloid_inner_petaloid: A typical flower with calyx and corolla
    • marked_differentiation_among_petaloid_tepals: All tepals alike; includes a single undifferentiated whorl
    • marked_differentiation_among_sepaloid_tepals: A typical flower with calyx and corolla
    • marked_differentiation: All tepals alike; includes a single undifferentiated whorl
    • continuous_differentiation_outer_sepaloid_inner_petaloid: A typical flower with calyx and corolla
    • continuous_differentiation_among_petaloid_tepals: All tepals alike; includes a single undifferentiated whorl
    • continuous_differentiation_among_sepaloid_tepals: A typical flower with calyx and corolla
    • weak_differentiation: All tepals alike; includes a single undifferentiated whorl
    • very_weak_differentiation: A typical flower with calyx and corolla

flower_fertile_stamens_count

  • label: Number of fertile stamens
  • description: Count of fertile stamens in bisexual or male flowers; does not score female flowers. (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘301. Number of fertile stamens (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 0 - 10000 count

flower_filament

  • label: Filament presence and shape
  • description: Trait that considers the absence or presence of the filament, and in the latter case, the shape of the filament. Shape is considered in terms of length and width and is defined in relation to anther length/width. The width of the filament may thus either be broad as in laminar (e.g., Eupomatiaceae) or bulky stamens (e.g., Chloranthaceae), or narrow (filamentous) as found in many core eudicots groups (e.g., Rosaceae). This trait is considered inapplicable when filaments are entirely fused with each other or to the perianth. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘305. Filament (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • absent: No filaments present
    • present_general: Filaments present, with no specific defining characteristics
    • long_and_narrow: Long and narrow shape; also called filiform, slender
    • short_and_narrow: Short and narrow shape; subsessile anthers
    • long_and_wide: Long and wide laminar shape
    • short_and_wide: Short and wide laminar shape
    • long_and_very_wide: Long and very wide shape; for instance, the petal-like (outer) stamens of Nymphaea
    • petaloid: Long and wide and colorful, e.g. Canna
    • fused_into_synandrium: Structure formed when stamens fused together
    • fused_into_fascicle_stalks: Special case where the stamens are fused into the stalk of a fascicle of flowers
    • long_and_narrow_divided_in_two: Long and narrow shape that is divided in two; e.g. Adoxa
    • short_general: Filament is short relative to the anther

flower_filament_fusion

  • label: Fusion of filaments
  • description: Fusion of stamen (and staminode) filaments among each other at anthesis (congenitally or postgenitally) is recorded on a continuous scale, from 0 (free filaments) to 1 (filaments fused along their entire length). Partial fusion is recorded using an approximate number between these two extremes (e.g., 0.1 corresponds to basal fusion, 0.5 to fusion along half of the length of filaments). (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘306. Fusion of filaments (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: n/n
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 n/n

flower_filament_fusion_to_inner_perianth

  • label: Fusion of filaments to inner perianth series
  • description: The fusion of filaments with the innermost perianth organs at anthesis on a continuous scale, from 0 (filaments completely free from perianth) to 1 (filaments fused along their entire length with the perianth; the “entire length” of the filament is defined as the distance between the floral base and the joint between filament and anther). Partial fusion is recorded using an approximate number between these two extremes (e.g., 0.1 corresponds to basal fusion, 0.5 to fusion along half of the length of perianth parts). If two (or more) stamen whorls (including staminodial whorls) differ in their extent of filament fusion with the perianth, this trait is recorded as a range of values. For example, if the filaments of an outermost stamen whorl are fused, up to 90% of their length, but an inner whorl only up to 50%, the trait is assigned a range of 0.5 to 0.9. The rationale for this is to provide a general trait that allows comparison of fusion among all angiosperms. (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘308. Fusion of filaments to inner perianth series (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: n/n
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 n/n

flower_anther_orientation

  • label: Anther orientation
  • description: Orientation of anther at anthesis. Anthers of angiosperms are rather uniform in their basic structure. They normally have four microsporangia (pollen sacs) that are arranged pair-wise in two thecae. The two microsporangia of a theca usually release their pollen grains through a common opening (stomium). Often, it is difficult to establish anther orientation clearly in a flower as this is a gradual feature with many intermediate stages. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘311. Anther orientation (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • apical: When thecae are positioned in a transverse position at the tip of the connective and thus dehisce upward in the flower (e.g., Sinofranchetia, Endress and Hufford, 1989).
    • extrorse: When the stomia of the thecae face the floral periphery
    • introrse: When the stomia of the thecae face the floral centre
    • latrorse: When pollen is released toward the side (i.e., toward neighbouring anthers)

flower_anther_attachment

  • label: Anther attachment
  • description: Anther attachment refers to the area of insertion of the filament on the anther connective (i.e. the tissue connecting the two thecae of an anther). (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘312. Anther attachment (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • basifixed: Filament attached to the base of the connective. Laminar stamens are classified as basifixed
    • dorsifixed: Filament attached to the dorsal side of the anther
    • dorsifixed_at_base: Filament attached to the dorsal side of the anther, at the base**
    • ventrifixed: Filament attached to the ventral side of the anther

flower_anther_dehiscence

  • label: Anther dehiscence
  • description: Anther dehiscence refers to the type of opening of the anther when releasing its pollen through the stomia. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘313. Anther dehiscence (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • longitudinal slit: Anther with longitudinal slits that extend along the entire length of each theca
    • poricidal: Anther where dehiscence of longitudinal slits is incomplete, with pollen exiting via a small pore
    • H_valvate: Anther with two valves on longitudinal hinges, opening horizontally as sallon doors; when the stomium bifurcates at its distal and/or proximal end and thus a valve is formed
    • flap_valvate: Anther with one or more flap-like valves on horizontal hinges, opening vertically
    • transverse_slit: Anther with horizontal slit
    • short_basal_slits: Anther where dehiscence of longitudinal slits is incomplete and only occurs over a short extent at the base of the theca
    • short_central_slits: Anther where dehiscence of longitudinal slits is incomplete and only occurs over a short extent at the center of the theca
    • short_apical_slits: Anther where dehiscence of longitudinal slits is incomplete and only occurs over a short extent at the apical end of the theca
    • T_valvate: Anther with T-shaped stomium; reduced transverse slit at base
    • common_stomium_confluent_thecae: (uncertain)

flower_anther_connective_extension

  • label: Connective extension (apical)
  • description: Apical (distal) connective extensions (also called “distal connective protrusions”) are sterile anther structures that distally extend beyond the level of the thecae (i.e., the two lateral pairs of pollen sacs of a tetrasporangiate anther). This trait records both absence or presence of anther connective extensions and also the shape of these extensions in terms of length in relation to the length of the thecae. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘314. Connective extension (apical) (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • absent: Apical connective extensions are lacking
    • short_extension: Connective extension less than a third of the length of anther
    • long_extension: Connective extension more than a third but less than length of anther; e.g. Idiospermum australiense
    • very_long_extension: Connective extension more than length of anther; e.g. Galbulimima belgraveana
    • present_general: Apical connective extensions are present, but no information on their length relative to the anthers

flower_androecium_structural_phyllotaxis

  • label: Androecium structural phyllotaxis
  • description: Structural phyllotaxy of the androecium, considering both fertile stamens and staminodes. In cases of stamen fascicles, it is the phyllotaxis of fascicles, not individual stamens that are recorded. This character is not applicable when there is a single structural stamen (i.e., one stamen, no staminodes; e.g., Chloranthus, Chloranthaceae). (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘330. Androecium structural phyllotaxy (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • whorled: Stamens and staminodes arranged in whorls
    • spiral: Stamens and staminodes have a spiral arrangement
    • irregular: Stamens and staminodes have an irregular arrangement

flower_androecium_structural_whorls_count

  • label: Number of androecium structural whorls
  • description: The number of whorls, considering both fertile stamens and staminodes. In cases of stamen fascicles, the count of whorls of fascicles is recorded. This character is not applicable for spiral or irregular stamen arrangements, or when there is a single structural stamen (i.e., one stamen, no staminodes; e.g., Chloranthus, Chloranthaceae). (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘331. Number of androecium structural whorls (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 0 - 100 count

flower_androecium_structural_merism

  • label: Number of androecium parts in each whorl (Androecium structural merism)
  • description: The number of stamens or stamen bundles (fascicles) in one whorl, considering both fertile stamens and staminodes. This character is not applicable for spiral or irregular stamen arrangements, nor when there is a single structural stamen (i.e., one stamen, no staminodes; e.g., Chloranthus, Chloranthaceae). (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘332. Androecium structural merism (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 0 - 100 count

flower_gynoecium_phyllotaxis

  • label: Gynoecium phyllotaxis
  • description: Structural phyllotaxy of the gynoecium. This trait is not applicable to unicarpellate flowers. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘400. Gynoecium phyllotaxy (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • one_whorl: Flowers with a single whorl of carpels
    • two_or_more_whorls: Flowers with two or more whorls of carpels
    • spiral: Flowers with carpels in a spiral arrangement

flower_structural_carpels_count

  • label: CNumber of structural carpels
  • description: Number of fertile or sterile carpels in bisexual or female flowers, recorded as a continuous character (with integer values of 1 and above). Includes the number of co-occurring carpellodes (sterile carpels) because this number is often more easily obtained from the literature than the actual number of fertile carpels. However, the number of carpellodes in male flowers is ignored for this character. In multicarpellate, unilocular gynoecia with complete carpel fusion up to the stigma (e.g., Primula), it may be difficult to assess the number of carpels unequivocally. In such cases, the number of carpels is scored only if it is well established based on anatomical or developmental investigations. Similarly, in gynoecia where one or more carpels are reduced (e.g., in the pseudomonomerous gynoecia of some Arecaceae, Stauffer et al., 2002), the total number of structural carpels is only scored when unequivocally determined in the literature. (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘401. Number of structural carpels (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 0 - 10000 count

flower_ovary_fusion

  • label: Fusion of ovaries
  • description: Degree of ovary fusion expressed as a fraction of the total length of the ovary (from the floral base to the apex of the ovary). Fusion of styles and stigmas is not taken into account for this trait. Not applicable when there is a single carpel. (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘403. Fusion of ovaries (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: n/n
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 n/n

flower_style_differentiation

  • label: Style differentiation
  • description: Presence or absence of a style, and, when present, the shape of the style in terms of length and width in relation to ovary length and width. This trait does not distinguish between fused or free styles. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘404. Style differentiation (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • absent: Stigma sessile
    • present_length_and_shape_unknown: Style present, but shape unknown
    • present_short_and_thick: Style present, and short and thick
    • present_short_and_narrow: Style present, and short and narrow, including short filiform styles
    • present_long_and_wide: Style present, and long and wide
    • present_long_and_narrow: Style present, and long and narrow, including long filiform styles
    • present_petaloid: Style present and petaloid
    • continuous: When the style is an apical extension of carpel with decurrent stigma

flower_style_fusion

  • label: Fusion of styles
  • description: The degree of fusion of styles at anthesis, recorded on a continuous scale, from 0 (free styles) to 1 (styles fused along their entire length, but excluding the stigmatic region). Partial fusion is recorded using an approximate number between these two extremes (e.g., 0.1 corresponds to basal fusion, 0.5 to fusion along half of the total length of the styles). This character is not applicable in unicarpellate flowers. (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘406. Fusion of styles (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: n/n
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 n/n

flower_ovules_per_functional_carpel_count

  • label: Number of ovules per functional carpel
  • description: Number of ovules per carpel recorded as a continuous character (with integer values of 1 and above). Reduced (sterile) carpels are not taken into account here. (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘411. Number of ovules per functional carpel (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 0 - 100000 count

flower_gynoecium_placentation

  • label: Placentation
  • description: The different types of placentation in apocarpous/unicarpellate and in syncarpous gynoecia. In apocarpous and unicarpellate gynoecia, placentation is often described as marginal as the ovules are usually attached along the ventral slit (i.e., the zone where the carpel margins become postgenitally closed during carpel development). In syncarpous gynoecia there are three main types of placentation, 1) axile placentation refers to ovaries where the ovules are placed in the angle between carpel flanks in the center of the ovary; 2) in ovaries with parietal placentation the ovules attach to the ovary wall where two carpels meet; 3) in ovaries with free-central placentation the ovules are attached to a central column that emerges from the base of the ovary and protrudes into the non-septate ovary. It is not unusual that syncarpous gynoecia show a transition from proximally axile to a distally parietal placentation (e.g., Polemoniaceae). Basal and apical placentation may occur both in apocarpous/unicarpellate and in syncarpous gynoecia. Usually there is one longitudinal series of ovules attached to each carpel margin. However, both in apocarpous/unicarpellate and in syncarpous gynoecia there may be more than one series of ovules at the flanks of a carpel. These latter cases are referred to as laminar (or laminar-diffuse) placentation (e.g., in some Nymphaeaceae). A placenta that is protruding from its surroundings and has more than two series of ovules (either axile or parietal) is called protruding-diffuse. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘412. Placentation (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • axile: Ovules are placed in the angle between carpel flanks in the center of the ovary; in syncarpous gynoecia
    • apical: Ovules attach at the top of the ovary; pendulous; in syncarpous gynoecia and apocarpous and unicarpellate gynoecia
    • basal: Ovules attach at the base of the ovary; in syncarpous gynoecia and apocarpous and unicarpellate gynoecia
    • parietal: Ovules attach to the ovary wall where two carpels meet; in syncarpous gynoecia
    • marginal: Ovules attach along the ventral slit; in apocarpous and unicarpellate gynoecia
    • free_central: Ovules are attached to a central column that emerges from the base of the ovary and protrudes into the non-septate ovary; in syncarpous gynoecia
    • laminar: When there is more than one series of ovules at the flanks of a carpel; in syncarpous gynoecia and apocarpous and unicarpellate gynoecia

flower_pollen_apertures_count

  • label: Number of pollen grain apertures
  • description: A pollen aperture is a structurally delimited region of the pollen grain wall through which the pollen tube emerges during pollen germination and which plays a role in harmomegathy. Here we report the number of apertures per pollen grain as a continuous character. A value of zero is scored when pollen is inaperturate (i.e. when there is no distinct aperture). Aperturate pollen is scored with integer values of 1 and above. (Definition derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘5000. Number of apertures (C1)’)
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 0 - 100 count

flower_pollen_aperture_shape

  • label: Pollen grain aperture shape
  • description: Pollen grains are often described according to the shape, structure, and position of their apertures. This trait describes the main shape of the many described aperture types. Aperture terminology is partly determined by the position of the aperture on the pollen grain (either at the pole or at the equator) and pollen grain polarity, in turn, is determined by the spatial orientation of the microspore in the meiotic tetrad. (Definition and trait values derived from Schoenenberger et al. (2020) for their character ‘5002. Aperture shape (D1)’)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • absent: (uncertain)
    • colporus: Pollen aperture shape that combines the groove of colpate and the pore of porate apertures
    • colpus: Pollen aperture shape is elongate and grooved and may be positioned globally or equatorially
    • pore: Pollen aperture shape is round and pore-like and may be positioned globally or equatorially
    • ring_like: (uncertain)
    • spiraperturate: Pollen grain with one or more spiral apertures
    • sulcus: Pollen aperture shape is elongate and grooved and positioned at the pole
    • syncolpus: Pollen grain with two or more simple (or compound) colpi, the ends of which join at the pole
    • ulcus: Pollen aperture shape is round and pore-like and positioned at the pole

fluorescence_Jmax_per_mass

  • label: Capacity for photosynthetic electron transport, measured through chlorophyll fluorescence, on a per mass basis
  • description: Capacity for photosynthetic electron transport, measured through chlorophyll fluorescence, on a per mass basis
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g/s
  • allowable range: 0 - 3 umol/g/s

fluorescence_Vcmax_per_mass

  • label: Maximum carboxylase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), measured through chlorophyll fluorescence, on a per mass basis
  • description: Maximum carboxylase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), measured through chlorophyll fluorescence, on a per mass basis
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/g
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 umol/g

fluorescence_Jmax_over_Vcmax

  • label: Ratio of photosynthetic electron transport capacity to maximum Rubisco activity, measured through chlorophyll fluorescence
  • description: Ratio of photosynthetic electron transport capacity to maximum Rubisco activity, measured through chlorophyll fluorescence
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0 - 5 dimensionless

Jmax_per_area

  • label: Capacity for photosynthetic electron transport, calculated from an A-Ci response curve, on an area basis
  • description: Capacity for photosynthetic electron transport, calculated from an A-Ci response curve, on an area basis
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/m2/s
  • allowable range: 1 - 500 umol/m2/s

Vcmax_per_area

  • label: Maximum carboxylase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), measured through chlorophyll fluorescence, on a per mass basis
  • description: Maximum carboxylase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), calculated from an A-Ci response curve, on an area basis
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/m2/s
  • allowable range: 10 - 500 umol/m2/s

fruit_colour

  • label: Fruit colour
  • description: Colour of a fruit
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • pink: pink
    • red: red
    • orange: orange
    • yellow: yellow
    • green: green
    • blue: blue
    • purple: purple
    • white: white
    • cream: cream
    • brown: brown
    • black: black
    • grey: grey

fruit_mass

  • label: Fruit dry mass
  • description: Dry mass of a fruit, including the seed
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1e+05 mg

fruit_wall_width

  • label: Fruit wall width
  • description: Width of the fruit wall
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 50 mm

fruit_width

  • label: Fruit diameter
  • description: Longest width dimension of a fruit; orthogonal to the length
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 500 mm

fruit_length

  • label: Fruit length
  • description: Longest fruit dimension or if clearly recognizable the length from its base to its apex
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 2000 mm

fruit_breadth

  • label: Fruit breadth
  • description: Shorter width dimension of a fruit; orthogonal to the length
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mm

fruit_N_per_dry_mass

  • label: Fruit nitrogen (N) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • description: Fruit nitrogen (N) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.5 - 100 mg/g

fruit_P_per_dry_mass

  • label: Fruit phosphorus (P) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • description: Fruit phosphorus (P) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 mg/g

fruit_Mg_per_dry_mass

  • label: Fruit magnesium (Mg) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • description: Fruit magnesium (Mg) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.05 - 10 mg/g

fruit_Ca_per_dry_mass

  • label: Fruit calcium (Ca) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • description: Fruit calcium (Ca) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.5 - 100 mg/g

fruit_K_per_dry_mass

  • label: Fruit potassium (K) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • description: Fruit potassium (K) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.5 - 100 mg/g

fruit_S_per_dry_mass

  • label: Fruit sulphur (S) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • description: Fruit sulphur (S) content per unit fruit dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.05 - 10 mg/g

fruit_type

  • label: Fruit type
  • description: Fruit types
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • achene: A small, dry, indehiscent one-seeded fruit with a thin wall
    • accessory_fruit: Fruit in which some of the flesh is derived from tissues adjacent to the true fruit; pseudocarp
    • accessory_fruit_dry: Dry fruit in which some of the flesh is derived from tissues adjacent to the true fruit; pseudocarp
    • aggregate_fruit: A fruit formed from several carpels derived from the same flower
    • anthocarp_nut: A false fruit consisting of the true fruit and the base of the floral whorls; instance where the true fruit is a nut
    • anthocarp_viscid: UNCERTAIN what the viscid refers to (See anthocarp above)
    • berry: Fleshy, indehiscent fruit in which the seeds are generally more than 1 and are not encased in a stone
    • berry_dry: Indehiscent fruit that is a berry, but dry
    • berry_inf: UNCERTAIN how this differs from general definition for berry
    • capsule: Dry fruit from compound pistil, nearly always dehiscent
    • capsule_dehiscent: Capsule that is dehiscent
    • capsule_indehiscent: Capsule that is indehiscent
    • capsule_explosive: Dry fruit from compound pistil, that releases its seeds in an explosive manner
    • capsule_aril: Dry fruit from compound pistil, with a fleshy outgrowth (aril) to attract pollinators; maybe use ‘capsule_reward’
    • capsule_wing: Dry fruit from compound pistil, with a wing for dispersal by wind
    • caryopsis: a dry one-seeded fruit in which the ovary wall is united with the seed coat, typical of grasses and cereals
    • cocci: One of the carpels or seed-vessels of a dry fruit.
    • cone: Fruit is located in a cone.
    • cypsela: An achene developed from an inferior bicarpellary ovary fused with the calyx tube (in Asteraceae)
    • dehiscent: Dehiscent fruit, no details specified
    • dehiscent_pod: Pod that opens or disarticulates at maturity
    • dry_indehiscent: Dry, indehiscent fruit, exact type not specified
    • dry_dehiscent_reward: Dry dehiscent with fleshy reward (e.g. aril, funicle, elaiosome, etc.)
    • dry_not_winged: Dry dehiscent or indehiscent without attractant or wing
    • dry_winged: Dry dehiscent or indehiscent with wing or plume (e.g. cypsela, samara, plumed achene, etc.)
    • drupe: Fleshy or pulpy, indehiscent, superficially berry-like fruit in which 1 seed is encased in a stone or more than 1 seed is encased in an equal number of free or variously fused stones
    • drupe_fibrous: Fibrous or dry drupe; indehiscent, superficially berry-like fruit in which 1 seed is encased in a stone or more than 1 seed is encased in an equal number of free or variously fused stones
    • fig: UNKNOWN
    • fleshy: Any fleshy fruit, including leshy berry, pome, pepo, etc.
    • fleshy_dehiscent: Dehiscent fleshy fruit
    • fleshy_indehiscent: Indehiscent fleshy fruit
    • follicle: Dry fruit from a simple pistil, dehiscent on generally only one side, along a single suture
    • follicle_dehiscent: Follicle that is dehiscent
    • indehiscent_pod: Pod that does not or disarticulate at maturity
    • indehiscent: Indehiscent fruit, no details specified
    • legume: Fruits from a legume; a dry or somewhat fleshy, 1- to many-seeded fruit from a simple pistil, typically dehiscent longitudinally along two sutures and splitting into halves that remain joined at the base
    • legume_indehiscent: Fruits from a legume; a legume (see above) that is indehiscent
    • mericarp: One of the two carpels that resemble achenes and form the schizocarp of an umbelliferous plant.
    • multiple_fruit: UNKNOWN
    • nut: Mostly dry, sometimes fleshy or pulpy, usually indehiscent fruit in which a single seed is encased in a hard shell
    • nut_indehiscent: Nut that is indehiscent
    • nut_winged: A nut that is enclosed in a winglike bract
    • nutlet: Small, dry nut or nut-like fruit, usually several of which are produced by a single flower; especially an achene
    • pod: A legume or superficially similar fruit
    • pome: A fleshy false fruit
    • pyrene: Fleshy fruit with each seed surrounded by a bony endocarp.
    • samara: A winged achene, a type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall
    • schizocarp: A dry fruit which splits into individual carpels
    • silique: Fruit type with two fused carpels with the length being more than three times the width; Brassicaceae
    • spore: Spore-producing plant
    • synangium: Compound fruiting body produced by some ferns and primitive gymnosperms
    • synconium: A fleshy hollow receptacle that develops into a multiple fruit, as in the fig
    • syncarp: A multiple fruit consisting of several united fruits, originating from several originally free carpels, usually fleshy
    • utricle: Small, bladder-like, thin-walled indehiscent fruit
    • utricle_fleshy: Small, bladder-like, thin-walled indehiscent fruit, that is partially fleshy
    • utricle_spiny: Small, bladder-like, thin-walled indehiscent fruit, that is spiny
    • viviparous: Plant sheds small live parts to spread

fruit_type_botanical

  • label: Fruit type (fleshy / dry)
  • description: Binary variable, dividing fruits into ‘dry’ versus ‘fleshy’ based on botanical descriptions of the true fruit
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • dry: true fruit that is dry
    • fleshy: true fruit that is fleshy

fruit_type_functional

  • label: Fruit type functional (fleshy vs dry dispersal units)
  • description: Binary variable dividing fruits into dry versus fleshy based on their dispersal units. Fruits classified as ‘fleshy’ if the true fruit, accessory fruits (such as the receptacle in Podocarpus) and appendages (e.g. the sarcotesta in Cycads) were fleshy when mature (e.g. aril, thalamus, receptacle, calyx, rachis or bract or succulent pedicel); otherwise, they are classified as ‘non-fleshy’
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • dry: fruit whose dispersal unit is functionally dry
    • fleshy: fruit whose dispersal unit is functionally fleshy

fruiting_time

  • label: Plant reproductive phenology timing (fruiting)
  • description: Months during which taxon is fruiting; keyed as a sequences of 12 0s (not flowering) and 1s (flowering) starting with January
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • **:

time_from_fire_to_fruit

  • label: Elapsed time from fire to fruiting
  • description: Elapsed time from fire to fruiting
  • type: numeric
  • units: months
  • allowable range: 1 - 500 months

fv_over_fm

  • label: Fv/Fm
  • description: Chlorophyll fluorescence measurement that indicates whether plant stress affects photo-system II in a dark adapted state
  • type: numeric
  • units: x/x
  • allowable range: 0.2 - 1 x/x

germination

  • label: Germination (proportion)
  • description: Proportion of seeds that germinate
  • type: numeric
  • units: n/n
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 n/n

germination_treatment

  • label: Germination treatment
  • description: Seed treatment required for germination
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • apply_chemical: apply generic chemical treatment
    • crack_seed: UNKNOWN
    • excise_pericarp: same as remove seed_coat
    • heat: heating the seed
    • imbibed: soaked
    • imbibed_bleach: soaked in a mild bleach solution
    • imbibed_calcium_hypochlorite: soaked in a mild solution of calcium hypochlorite (is this always the same as standard bleach?)
    • imbibed_cooled_boiling: soaked in water that has boiled and then cooled slightly
    • imbibed_distilled: soaked in distilled water
    • imbibed_hot_water: soaked in hot, but not boiling water
    • imbibed_near_boiling: soaked in near-boiling water
    • imbibed_remove_casing: soaked and seed casing removed
    • imbibed_remove_salt: soaked to leach salts
    • imbibed_seed_primer: soaked in seed primer
    • imbibed_then_nicked: soaked, then seed is nicked
    • incise_pericarp: make incision into pericarp
    • light: light
    • mycorhizal_association: Requires mycorhizal symbiont to germinate
    • none: No special germination treatment required
    • remove_bracts: remove bracts surrounding the seed
    • remove_mericarp_plug: remove the mericarp plug
    • remove_seed_casing: UNKNOWN
    • remove_seed_coat: same as excise pericarp
    • rinse: rinse the seed (generic)
    • scarify: Unspecified seed scarification
    • scarify_file_seed_coat: UNKNOWN
    • scarify_fruit: Remove or partially remove a covering that is not the seed coat
    • scarify_fruit_vice: Remove or partially remove a covering that is not the seed coat. Covering sufficiently tough a vice is required to break it.
    • scarify_nick_seed_coat: Chip, nick, or otherwise partially remove the seed coat
    • scarify_pierce_seed_coat: UNKNOWN
    • scarify_remove_aril: UNKNOWN
    • scarify_remove_seed_coat: UNKNOWN
    • scarify_sand_seed_coat: Sand the seed coat
    • scarify_seed_coat_vice: UNKNOWN
    • simulate_smoke: Simulate smoke conditions for a period using the disk method.
    • smoke: Seed requires smoke to germinate
    • smoked_water: Soak seed in smoked water
    • smoke_and_heat: Expose seed to a combination of smoke and heat
    • smoke_and_light: Expose seed to smoke and light
    • sterilise_calcium_hydroxide: Seed sterilised in calcium hydroxide (or similar)
    • sterilise_domestos: Seed sterilised in 10% doemestos (or similar)
    • stratification: Cold treatment

genome_size

  • label: Plant genome size
  • description: Mass of the plant’s genome
  • type: numeric
  • units: pg
  • allowable range: 0.5 - 100 pg

glaucous

  • label: Glaucous
  • description: Variable indicating if a plant’s leaves are glaucous or not
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • 0: not glaucous
    • 1: glaucous

growth_habit

  • label: Growth habit (data actually describes plant vegetative reproduction capacity)
  • description: Variable that defines a combination of growth habit and plant vegetative reproductive potential
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • prostrate: Plants that lie flat on the ground
    • rhizomatous: Plants having modified underground stems
    • stoloniferous: Plants having horizontal branches from the base of the plant that produce new plants from buds at its tip or nodes
    • tufted: A dense clump attached at the base or growing close together; can refer to grasses, shrubs, or trees

guard_cell_length

  • label: Guard cell length
  • description: Length of guard cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 10 - 200 um

huber_value

  • label: Huber value
  • description: Sapwood area to leaf area ratio
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm2_sapwood/mm2_leaf
  • allowable range: 1e-06 - 0.2 mm2_sapwood/mm2_leaf

hypocotyl_type

  • label: Hypocotyl type
  • description: Binary variable distinguishing between glabrous versus hairy hypocotyls (the embryonic axis to which the cotyeledons are attached).
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • glabrous: Hypocotyl lacks hairs
    • hairy: Hypocotyl has hairs

upper_hypodermis_thickness

  • label: Upper hypodermis thickness
  • description: Thickness of the upper hypodermis
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 um

lower_hypodermis_thickness

  • label: Lower hypodermis thickness
  • description: Thickness of the lower hypodermis
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 um

inundation_tolerance

  • label: Inundation tolerance
  • description: Ability of taxon to tolerate being under water
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • not_applicable: Taxa is not typically confronted with beng inundated and its response is unknown.
    • <1_month: Taxa able to tolerate being inundated for less than 1 month.
    • 1-6_months: Taxa able to tolerate being inundated for 1-6 months.
    • >6_months: Taxa able to tolerate being inundated for more than 6 months.
    • aquatic: Taxa truly aquatic and able to be permanantly inundated.

flood_regime_classification

  • label: Growth and germination response to flood regime
  • description: Functional group classification scheme used to categorise taxa into seven groups based on their growth and germination responses to flood regime. Based on Brock and Casanova (1997) and Casanova and Brock (2000).
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • terrestrial_dry: Species which germinate, grow and reproduce where there is no surface water and the water table is below the soil surface. (Dry species; Tdr)
    • terrestrial_damp: Species which germinate, grow and reproduce on saturated soil. (Damp species; Tda)
    • amphibious_fluctuation_tolerators_emergent: Species which germinate in damp or flooded conditions, which tolerate variation in water level, and which grow with their basal portions under water and reproduce out of water. (Emergent species; ATe)
    • amphibious_fluctuation_tolerators_low: Species which germinate in damp or flooded conditions, which tolerate variation in water level, which are low-growing and tolerate complete submersion when water-levels rise. (Low-growing species; ATl)
    • amphibious_fluctuation_responders_plastic: Species which germinate in flooded conditions, grow in both flooded and damp conditions, reproduce above the surface of the water, and which have morphological plasticity (e.g. heterophylly) in response to water-level variation. (Morphologically plastic species; ARp)
    • amphibious_fluctuation_responders_floating: Species which germinate in flooded conditions, grow in both flooded and damp conditions, reproduce above the surface of the water, and which have floating leaves when inundated. (Species with floating leaves; ARf)
    • amphibious: Species which germinate in damp or flooded conditions and can grow in or our of water.
    • submerged: Species which germinate, grow and reproduce underwater. (S)

leaf_angle

  • label: Leaf angle, relative to horizontal
  • description: Leaf angle, relative to horizontal
  • type: numeric
  • units: degrees
  • allowable range: -180 - 180 degrees

leaf_curliness

  • label: Maximum absolute height of a leaf when positioned on a flat surface.
  • description: Maximum absolute height of a leaf when positioned on a flat surface. A measure of how 3-dimensional a leaf is (versus planar).
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0 - 100 mm

leaf_area

  • label: Leaf area
  • description: Area of the leaf surface
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm2
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1e+07 mm2

leaflet_area

  • label: Leaf area
  • description: Area of the surface of a single leaflet
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm2
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1e+06 mm2

leaf_area_ratio

  • label: Leaf area per unit plant dry mass
  • description: Ratio of leaf area to total plant dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm2/mg
  • allowable range: 0.05 - 100 mm2/mg

leaf_absorption

  • label: Proportion of incoming visible light that is absorbed by the leaf
  • description: Proportion of incoming visible light (between 400-700 nm) that is absorbed by the leaf
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/umol
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 umol/umol

leaf_reflectance

  • label: Proportion of incoming visible light that is reflected by the leaf
  • description: Proportion of incoming visible light (between 400-700 nm) that is reflected by the leaf
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/umol
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 umol/umol

leaf_reflectance_near_infrared

  • label: Proportion of incoming near infra-red light that is reflected by the leaf
  • description: Proportion of incoming near infra-red light (between 750-10500 nm) that is reflected by the leaf
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/umol
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1 umol/umol

leaf_transmission

  • label: Proportion of incoming visible light that is transmitted through the leaf
  • description: Proportion of incoming visible light (between 400-700 nm) that is transmitted through the leaf
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/umol
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 umol/umol

leaf_PRI

  • label: Photochemical Reflectance Index
  • description: Photochemical reflectance index measures plant responses to stress, by indicating changes in carotenoid pigments in live foliage.
  • type: numeric
  • units: umol/umol
  • allowable range: -1 - 1 umol/umol

leaf_arrangement

  • label: Arrangement of leaves
  • description: Describes leaf arrangement on the stem
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • alternate: A single leaf is attached at each stem node
    • opposite: Leaves attach to the stem in pairs
    • reduced_to_scales: Plant lacks true leaves. Leaves are instead small scales
    • whorled_tufted_crowded: Three or more leaves are attached at each node

leaf_ash_content_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf ash content per dry mass
  • description: Leaf ash content per dry mass, where leaf ash is the component of the leaf remaining after combustion.
  • type: numeric
  • units: %
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 %

leaf_Al_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf aluminium (Al) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf aluminium (Al) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 12000 mg/kg

leaf_B_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf boron (B) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf boron (B) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1000 mg/kg

leaf_C_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf carbon (C) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf carbon (C) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 50 - 750 mg/g

leaf_Ca_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf calcium (Ca) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf calcium (Ca) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1000 mg/g

leaf_cell_wall_fraction

  • label: Leaf cell wall fraction (fraction of cell wall material recovered from total leaf biomass)
  • description: Fraction of total leaf biomass that is cell wall material
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1 dimensionless

leaf_cell_wall_N

  • label: Leaf cell wall nitrogen concentration
  • description: Proportion of leaf cell wall material that is nitrogen
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmolN/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 10 mmolN/g

leaf_cell_wall_N_fraction

  • label: Leaf cell wall nitrogen fraction
  • description: Proportion of all N in leaves that is found in the leaf cell walls
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 dimensionless

leaf_Cl_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf chlorine (Cl) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf chlorine (Cl) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 10 - 10000 mg/kg

leaf_CN_ratio

  • label: Leaf carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio
  • description: Leaf carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 10 - 1000 g/g

leaf_compoundness

  • label: Leaf compoundness
  • description: Indicates whether or not a leaf is compound; different ‘simple’ terminology used by different studies
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • compound: A leaf that is divided into multiple leaflets
    • leafless: A stem that lacks leaves
    • phyllode: Stem segment that functions like a leaf
    • scale: A scale leaf
    • simple: A leaf with a single undivided blade
    • trifoliate: A leaf that is divided into three leaflets; a special category of compound

leaf_Co_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf cobalt (Co) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf cobalt (Co) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: ppm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 150 ppm

leaf_Cr_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf chromium (Cr) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf chromium (Cr) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: ppm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 150 ppm

leaf_Cu_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf copper (Cu) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf copper (Cu) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 150 mg/kg

leaf_dark_respiration_per_area

  • label: Leaf respiration rate per unit leaf area, in the dark
  • description: Leaf respiration rate per unit leaf area, in the dark
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/m2/s
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 15 umolCO2/m2/s

leaf_dark_respiration_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf respiration rate per unit leaf dry mass, in the dark
  • description: Leaf respiration rate per unit leaf dry mass, in the dark
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/g/s
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 umolCO2/g/s

stem_respiration_per_dry_mass

  • label: Stem respiration rate per unit dry mass
  • description: Stem respiration rate per unit dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/g/s
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 umolCO2/g/s

leaf_light_respiration_per_area

  • label: Leaf respiration rate per unit leaf area, in the light
  • description: Leaf respiration rate per unit leaf area, in the light
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/m2/s
  • allowable range: 1e-05 - 10000 umolCO2/m2/s

leaf_delta13C

  • label: Leaf carbon (C) isotope signature (delta 13C)
  • description: Leaf carbon stable isotope signature
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -50 - 0 per mille

leaf_delta15N

  • label: Leaf nitrogen (N) isotope signature (delta 15N)
  • description: Leaf nitrogen stable isotope signature
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -25 - 75 per mille

leaf_xylem_delta15N

  • label: Xylem nitrogen (N) isotope signature (delta 15N) from leaves
  • description: Xylem nitrogen stable isotope signature from leaves
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -25 - 75 per mille

leaf_delta18O

  • label: Leaf oxygen (O) isotope signature (delta 18O)
  • description: Leaf oxygen stable isotope signature
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -10 - 50 per mille

stem_water_delta18O

  • label: Oxygen stable isotope signature (d18O) of stem water
  • description: Oxygen stable isotope signature of stem water
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -10 - 50 per mille

leaf_density

  • label: Leaf tissue density
  • description: Leaf tissue density
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mm3
  • allowable range: 0.05 - 1.1 mg/mm3

leaf_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 15000 mg

leaflet_dry_mass

  • label: Dry mass of a single leaflet
  • description: Dry mass of a single leaflet
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg
  • allowable range: 0.005 - 15000 mg

leaf_dry_matter_content

  • label: Leaf dry mass per unit leaf fresh mass (Leaf dry matter content, LDMC)
  • description: Leaf dry mass per unit leaf fresh mass. (See also leaf_water_content_per_mass, the ratio of water content to leaf dry mass, recorded by some studies.)
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 2 g/g

leaf_elastic_modulus

  • label: Leaf elastic modulus
  • description: Ratio of the change in cell turgor relative to the change in cell volume
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmol/m2/s
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mmol/m2/s

leaf_Fe_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf iron (Fe) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf iron (Fe) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 1 - 10000 mg/kg

leaf_fresh_mass

  • label: Leaf fresh mass
  • description: Leaf fresh mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 30000 mg

leaf_fresh_mass_per_area

  • label: Leaf fresh mass per leaf area
  • description: Leaf fresh mass per leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/m2
  • allowable range: 200 - 2000 g/m2

leaf_hairs_adult

  • label: Presence of hairs on adult leaves
  • description: Binary variable describing whether or not adult leaves have hairs
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • 0: leaves on adult plants do not have hairs
    • 1: leaves on adult plants do have hairs

leaf_hairs_juvenile

  • label: Presence of hairs on juvenile leaves
  • description: Binary variable describing whether or not juvenile leaves have hairs
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • 0: leaves on juvenile plants do not have hairs
    • 1: leaves on juvenile plants do have hairs

leaf_hydraulic_conductivity

  • label: Leaf hydraulic conductivity
  • description: Measure of how efficiently water is transported through the leaf, determined as the ratio of water flow rate through the leaf to the difference in water potential across the leaf, standardised to leaf area.
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmol/m2/s/MPa
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mmol/m2/s/MPa

leaf_hydraulic_vulnerability

  • label: Leaf hydraulic vulnerability
  • description: Leaf water potential value at which leaf hydraulic conductance has declined by 50% from the mean maximum rate
  • type: numeric
  • units: neg_MPa
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 40 neg_MPa

leaf_K_per_area

  • label: Leaf potassium (K) content per unit leaf area
  • description: Leaf potassium (K) content per unit leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/m2
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 10 g/m2

leaf_K_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf potassium (K) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf potassium (K) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

leaf_length

  • label: Leaf length
  • description: Length of the leaf, including petiole and rachis in compound leaves
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1e+05 mm

leaf_lifespan

  • label: Leaf lifespan (longevity)
  • description: Leaf lifespan (longevity)
  • type: numeric
  • units: month
  • allowable range: 1 - 1000 month

leaf_cellulose_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf cellulose per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf cellulose per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 mg/mg

leaf_lignin_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf lignin per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf lignin per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 mg/mg

leaf_tannin_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf tannins (polyphenols) per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf tannins (polyphenols) per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mg
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 mg/mg

leaf_margin

  • label: Leaf margin
  • description: Description of leaf margin as lobed, toothed or entire.
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • entire: Leaf margin without lobes or toothed
    • lobed: Leaf margin that is either lobed
    • toothed: Leaf margin that is toothed

leaf_division

  • label: Leaf divisions
  • description: Detailed description of leaf divisions, beyond what is captured in leaf_compoundness (simple versus compound) and leaf_margin (entire, toothed, lobed). Includes pinnation
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • bipartite: Divided into 2 lobes
    • bipinnate: Twofold pinnate; a leaf with two levels of pinnae (leaflets)
    • bipinnatisect: Twofold pinnatisect, with lobes upon lobes that extend nearly to the midrib in narrow divisions, but divisions are not separated into distinct leaflets
    • bipinnatipartite: Twofold pinnatipartite, with lobes upon lobes that extend more than half way to the midrid
    • coarsely_toothed: coarsely toothed
    • compound: Compound leaf, type unspecified
    • crenate: Having a round-toothed or scalloped edge
    • deeply_bipinnatifid: Lobes upon lobes that extend about half-way toward the midrib
    • deeply_pinnatifid: Lobes that extend about half-way toward the midrib
    • deeply_pinnatipartite: Lobes that extend nearly all the way toward the midrib
    • deeply_segmented: Deeply segmented
    • deeply_toothed: Deeply toothed
    • dentate: Sharply toothed
    • dichotomously_divided: Divided into two lobes
    • entire: Leaf margin without lobes or toothed; includes “simple” leaves where no lobing or divisions specified
    • lobed: Leaf margin that is lobed
    • lobed_to_midvein: same as pinnatisect
    • pinnate: Leaf divided into leaflets
    • pinnatifid: Lobes that extend less than half-way toward the midrib
    • pinnatipartite: Lobes that extend more than half-way toward the midrib
    • pinnatisect: Lobes that extend nearly to the midrib in narrow divisions, but divisions are not separated into distinct leaflets
    • pinnately_lobed: Shallow lobes in a pinnate pattern
    • palmately_compound: Palmately compound
    • palmately_lobed: Palmately lobed
    • shallowly_lobed: With shallow lobes
    • toothed: Leaf margin that is toothed
    • trichotomously_divided: Divided repeatedly into three lobes
    • trifoliate: Divided into 3 leaflets
    • tripartite: Divided into 3 lobes
    • tripinnate: Threefold pinnate; a leaf with three levels of pinnae (leaflets)

leaf_mass_fraction

  • label: Leaf mass fraction
  • description: Ratio of leaf dry mass to total plant dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 g/g

leaf_mass_to_stem_mass

  • label: Ratio of leaf dry mass to stem dry mass
  • description: Ratio of leaf dry mass to stem dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 g/g

leaf_mesophyll_conductance_per_area

  • label: Mesophyll conductance per unit leaf area
  • description: Rate of CO2 movement between chloroplasts and sub-stomatal cavities (intracellular space), per unit leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmolCO2/g/s
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 mmolCO2/g/s

leaf_mesophyll_conductance_per_mass

  • label: Mesophyll conductance per unit leaf mass
  • description: Rate of CO2 movement between chloroplasts and sub-stomatal cavities (intracellular space), per unit leaf mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: molCO2/m2/s
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 molCO2/m2/s

leaf_Mg_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf magnesium (Mg) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf magnesium (Mg) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10000 mg/g

leaf_Mn_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf manganese (Mn) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf manganese (Mn) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 1 - 20000 mg/kg

leaf_Mo_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf molybdenum (Mo) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf molybdenum (Mo) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 0 - 100 mg/kg

leaf_N_per_area

  • label: Leaf nitrogen (N) content per unit leaf area
  • description: Leaf nitrogen (N) content per unit leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/m2
  • allowable range: 0.15 - 50 g/m2

leaf_N_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf nitrogen (N) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf nitrogen (N) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.5 - 100 mg/g

leaf_Na_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf sodium (Na) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf sodium (Na) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 1 - 20000 mg/kg

leaf_Ni_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf nickel (Ni) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf nickel (Ni) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/kg

leaf_P_per_area

  • label: Leaf phosphorus (P) content per unit leaf area
  • description: Leaf phosphorus (P) content per unit leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/m2
  • allowable range: 0.005 - 1.2 g/m2

leaf_P_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf phosphorus (P) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf phosphorus (P) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.03 - 12 mg/g

leaf_phenol_content_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf phenol (P) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf phenol content, measured as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/kg
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 g/kg

leaf_phenology

  • label: Leaf phenology type (evergreen, deciduous, semi-deciduous)
  • description: Variable indicating whether a plant has deciduous versus evergreen leaves; different types of deciduousness included as trait values
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • deciduous: Plant where all leaves are shed yearly, either due to drought or cold
    • evergreen: Plant which retains its leaves year-round
    • drought_deciduous: Plant that sheds its leaves in response to drought
    • facultative_drought_deciduous: Plant that sometimes sheds its leaves in response to drought
    • semi_deciduous: Plant that sheds its leaves each year for just a very brief period of time

leaf_photosynthetic_nitrogen_use_efficiency_maximum

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit leaf nitrogen (N) content (photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, PNUE) at saturating light and CO2 conditions
  • description: Ratio of photosynthesis (CO2 assimilation rate) to leaf nitrogen content at saturating light and CO2 conditions
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/molN/s
  • allowable range: 1 - 1000 umolCO2/molN/s

leaf_photosynthetic_nitrogen_use_efficiency_saturated

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit leaf nitrogen (N) content (photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, PNUE) at saturating light conditions but ambient CO2 conditions
  • description: Ratio of photosynthesis (CO2 assimilation rate) to leaf nitrogen content at saturating light conditions but ambient CO2 conditions
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/molN/s
  • allowable range: 1 - 1000 umolCO2/molN/s

leaf_photosynthetic_phosphorus_use_efficiency_maximum

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit leaf phosphorus (P) content (photosynthetic phosphorus use efficiency, PPUE) at saturating light and CO2 conditions
  • description: Ratio of photosynthesis (CO2 assimilation rate) to leaf phosphorus content at saturating light and CO2 conditions
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/molP/s
  • allowable range: 100 - 1e+05 umolCO2/molP/s

leaf_photosynthetic_phosphorus_use_efficiency_saturated

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit leaf phosphorus (P) content (photosynthetic phosphorus use efficiency, PPUE) at saturating light conditions but ambient CO2 conditions
  • description: Ratio of photosynthesis (CO2 assimilation rate) to leaf phosphorus content at saturating light conditions but ambient CO2 conditions
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/molP/s
  • allowable range: 10 - 1e+05 umolCO2/molP/s

leaf_Se_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf selenium (Se) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf selenium (Se) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: ppm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 ppm

leaf_Si_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf silicon (Si) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf silicon (Si) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/kg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 g/kg

leaf_S_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf sulphur (S) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf sulphur (S) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 50 - 50000 mg/kg

leaf_shape

  • label: Leaf shape
  • description: Leaf shape
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • acicular: Needle-shaped
    • article: Leaf comprised of jointed segments, as in family Casuarinaceae
    • auriculate: Shaped like an ear or ear lobe.
    • branchlets_articles: Branches with article leaves, as in family Casuarinaceae
    • broadly_lanceolate: Like lanceolate, but broader
    • broadly_obovate: Like obovate, but broader
    • broadly_ovate: Like ovate, but broader
    • circular: Circular
    • cladode: A flattened stem or internode that resembles and functions as a leaf
    • clavate: Slender, broadening towards the tip; club-shaped, with the thickened part at the tip
    • cordate: Heart-shaped
    • cuneate: Triangular, wedge-shaped, stem attaches to point
    • deltoid: Triangular, stem attaches to side
    • dimidate: A leaf in which only one side is developed
    • elliptical: Oval shaped, without a distinct point
    • elliptical-oblong: Oval shaped, without a distinct point, but more elongated
    • flabelliform: Fan-shaped
    • falcate: Sickle-shaped
    • flat: Leave flat
    • filiform: Thread-like or filament-shaped
    • fusiform: Spindle-shaped and tapering at both ends
    • half_terete: Semi-circular in cross-section
    • hastate: Spear-shaped - pointed, with barbs, shaped like a spear point, with flaring pointed lobes at the base
    • lanceolate: Long, wider in the middle, shaped like a lance tip
    • leafless: No leaf present
    • linear: Long and very narrow like a blade of grass
    • linear_elliptical: A particularly long, narrow elliptical leaf
    • linear_oblanceolate: A particularly long, narrow oblanceolate leaf
    • linear_obovate: A particularly long, narrow obovate leaf
    • lobed: Being divided by clefts, may be pinnately lobed or palmately lobed
    • lorate: Having the form of a strap
    • narrowly_cuneate: like cuneate, but narrower
    • narrowly_elliptical: like elliptical, but narrower
    • narrowly_oblong: like oblong, but narrower
    • narrowly_obovate: like obovate, but narrower
    • narrowly_obtrullate: like obtrullate, but narrower
    • narrowly_ovate: like ovate, but narrower
    • narrowly_subulate: like subulate, but narrower
    • narrowly_rhomboidal: like rhomboidal, but narrower
    • narrowly_triangular: like triangular, but narrower
    • needle: Needle-shaped
    • obcordate: Heart-shaped, stem attaches at the tapering end
    • oblanceolate: Much longer than wide and with the widest portion near the tip, reversed lanceolate
    • oblate: An elongate leaf that is wider in the middle than at the two ends
    • oblong: Having an elongated form with slightly parallel sides, roughly rectangular
    • obtriangular: A triangular leaf where the stem attaches to the tapering end
    • obtrullate: In the form of a reversed trowel (with longer sides meeting at the base)
    • obovate: Teardrop-shaped, stem attaches to the tapering end; reversed ovate
    • obovoid: A 3-dimensional shape; teardrop-shaped, stem attaches to the tapering end
    • orbicular: Circular
    • ovate: Oval, egg-shaped, with a tapering point and the widest portion near the petiole
    • palm: UNCERTAIN if this refers to a leaf from a palm (Araceeae) or a palmately lobed leaf
    • palmately_lobed: Palm-shaped, i.e., with lobes or leaflets stemming from the leaf base
    • peltate: A round leaf where the petiole attaches near the center
    • phyllode: Stem segment that functions like a leaf
    • reniform: Shaped like a kidney - an oval with an inward curve on one side
    • rhomboidal: Diamond-shaped
    • scale: Scale leaf
    • spathulate: Spoon-shaped; having a broad flat end which tapers to the base
    • spine: Leaf reduced to a spine
    • straight: Leaf with very straight sides
    • subulate: Slender and tapering to a point; awl-shaped.
    • terete: Circular in cross-section; more or less cylindrical without grooves or ridges
    • terete_compressed: Like terete, but compressed
    • triangular: Triangular leaf where stem attaches to a side; similar to deltoid
    • trigonous_terete: Terete, but triangular in cross section
    • widely_obovate: like obovate, but wider
    • widely_obtrullate: In the form of a reversed trowel (with longer sides meeting at the base), but wider

leaf_specific_conductivity

  • label: Leaf specific hydraulic conductivity (Kl)
  • description: Kl; the ratio of leaf hydraulic conductivity to the leaf area distil to the segment
  • type: numeric
  • units: 10^4 x kg/m/s/MPa
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 500 10^4 x kg/m/s/MPa

leaf_thickness

  • label: Leaf thickness
  • description: Thickness of the leaf lamina
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 51 mm

whole_plant_transpiration

  • label: Whole plant transpiration
  • description: Rate of water loss per plant, as calculated across longer periods of time under experimental conditions.
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/day/cm2
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1000 g/day/cm2

leaf_transpiration

  • label: Leaf transpiration under ambient conditions
  • description: Rate of water loss from leaf under ambient conditions
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmolH2O/m2/s
  • allowable range: 1e-04 - 10000 mmolH2O/m2/s

leaf_transpiration_at_Amax

  • label: Leaf transpiration during Amax measurement
  • description: Rate of water loss from leaf during Amax measurement
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmolH2O/m2/s
  • allowable range: 1e-04 - 10000 mmolH2O/m2/s

leaf_transpiration_at_Asat

  • label: Leaf transpiration during Asat measurement
  • description: Rate of water loss from leaf during Asat measurement
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmolH2O/m2/s
  • allowable range: 1e-04 - 10000 mmolH2O/m2/s

leaf_dark_transpiration_per_area

  • label: Leaf transpiration rate per unit leaf area, in the dark
  • description: Leaf transpiration rate per unit leaf area, in the dark
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmolH2O/m2/s
  • allowable range: 1e-04 - 10000 mmolH2O/m2/s

leaf_turgor_loss_point

  • label: Leaf turgor loss point
  • description: Water potential at which a leaf loses turgor
  • type: numeric
  • units: neg_MPa
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 neg_MPa

leaf_relative_water_content_at_turgor_loss_point

  • label: Leaf relative water content at turgor loss point
  • description: Ratio of water in a fresh leaf to water in a leaf at turgor loss; calculated from a pressure-volume curve.
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1 g/g

bulk_modulus_of_elasticity

  • label: Bulk modulus of elasticity (e)
  • description: In leaves, the ratio of the change in cell turgor to the change in cell volume as a plant dries out; calculated from a pressure-volume curve
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 MPa

osmotic_potential_at_full_turgor

  • label: Osmotic potential at full tugor
  • description: Osmotic potential at full tugor; calculated from a pressure-volume curve
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 10 MPa

leaf_type

  • label: Leaf type
  • description: Broad definitions of leaf type
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • article: Leaf comprised of jointed segments
    • broadleaf: Flat leaf lamina
    • leafless: Lacks leaves
    • needle: Needle or awl-shaped leaf
    • phyllode: Winged leaf stalk which functions as a leaf
    • scale_leaf: A small flat leaf resembling a scale

leaf_water_content_per_area

  • label: Leaf water content per unit area
  • description: Ratio of the mass of water in a leaf to leaf surface area; leaf succulence
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/m2
  • allowable range: 10 - 5000 g/m2

leaf_water_content_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf water content per unit dry mass
  • description: Ratio of the mass of water in a leaf to leaf dry mass. (See also leaf_dry_matter_content, the ratio of a leaf’s dry mass to fresh mass, that is recorded by a greater number of studies.)
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 20 g/g

leaf_water_content_per_fresh_mass

  • label: Leaf water content per unit fresh mass
  • description: Ratio of the mass of water in a leaf to leaf fresh mass. (See also leaf_dry_matter_content, the ratio of a leaf’s dry mass to fresh mass, that is recorded by a greater number of studies.)
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 g/g

leaf_water_content_per_saturated_mass

  • label: Leaf water content per unit mass of saturated leaf
  • description: Ratio of water in a saturated leaf (maximal water holding capacity at full turgidity) to leaf saturated mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 10 g/g

stem_water_content_per_saturated_mass

  • label: Water content per unit mass of saturated stem
  • description: Ratio of water in a saturated stem (maximal water holding capacity at full turgidity) to stem saturated mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 10 g/g

bark_water_content_per_saturated_mass

  • label: Water content per unit mass of saturated bark
  • description: Ratio of water in a saturated bark (maximal water holding capacity at full turgidity) to bark saturated mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 10 g/g

bark_water_content_per_dry_mass

  • label: Bark water content per unit dry mass
  • description: Ratio of the mass of water in a bark to bark dry mass.
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 g/g

leaf_width

  • label: Leaf width
  • description: Longest width axis of a leaf; orthogonal to its length
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1e+05 mm

leaf_work_to_punch

  • label: Work to punch through a leaf
  • description: Measure of how much force (work) is required to punch through a leaf; units same as J/m2; slight variation in methods used will mean that, in some cases, values are not perfectly comparable across studies
  • type: numeric
  • units: N/m
  • allowable range: 0.5 - 10000 N/m

leaf_work_to_punch_adjusted

  • label: Work to punch through a leaf, adjusted for leaf thickness
  • description: Measure of how much force (work) is required to punch through a leaf, adjusted for leaf thickness; units same as J/m2; slight variation in methods used will mean that, in some cases, values are not perfectly comparable across studies
  • type: numeric
  • units: N/m2
  • allowable range: 1000 - 3e+07 N/m2

leaf_work_to_tear

  • label: Work to tear a leaf
  • description: Measures of how much force (work) is required to tear/rip a leaf; units same as J/m; slight variation in methods used will mean that, in some cases, values are not perfectly comparable across studies
  • type: numeric
  • units: N
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 50 N

leaf_work_to_tear_adjusted

  • label: Work to tear a leaf, adjusted for leaf thickness
  • description: Measures of how much force (work) is required to tear/rip a leaf, adjusted to leaf thickness; units same as J/m2; slight variation in methods used will mean that, in some cases, values are not perfectly comparable across studies
  • type: numeric
  • units: N/m
  • allowable range: 10 - 15000 N/m

leaf_work_to_shear

  • label: Work to shear a leaf
  • description: Measures of how much force (work) is required to shear a leaf; equivalent to cutting a leaf with scissors; units same as J/m; slight variation in methods used will mean that, in some cases, values are not perfectly comparable across studies
  • type: numeric
  • units: N
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 N

leaf_work_to_shear_adjusted

  • label: Work to shear a leaf, adjusted for leaf thickness
  • description: Measures of how much force (work) is required to shear a leaf, adjusted to leaf thickness; same units as J/m2; also referred to as ‘fracture toughness’; slight variation in methods used will mean that, in some cases, values are not perfectly comparable across studies
  • type: numeric
  • units: N/m
  • allowable range: 100 - 10000 N/m

leaf_Zn_per_dry_mass

  • label: Leaf zinc (Zn) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Leaf zinc (Zn) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1000 mg/kg

life_form

  • label: Life form
  • description: Raunkiaer classification; Categorical classification of plants according to shoot-apex or bud protection
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • aerophytes: Plants that obtain moisture and nutrients from the air and rain
    • chamaephyte: Plants with buds on persistent shoots near the soil surface
    • cryptophytes: plants have subterranean or under water resting buds
    • epiphyte: Plant that grows on the surface of another plant
    • geophyte: Plants with bulbs that rest in dry soil as a rhizome, bulb or corm
    • helophytes: Plants with bulbs that rest in marshy or wet soil
    • hemicryptophyte: Plants with buds at or near the soil surface
    • hemicryptophyte_flat_rosette: Plants with buds at or near the soil surface; all leaves radical, leaves flat or erect depending on conditions
    • hemicryptophyte_erect_rosette: Plants with buds at or near the soil surface; all leaves radical, leaves always erect
    • hemicryptophyte_partial_rosette: Plants with buds at or near the soil surface; radical and cauline leaves present, largest leaves on lower stem
    • hemicryptophyte_proto-rosette: Plants with buds at or near the soil surface; all leaves cauline, largest leaves towards the middle of stem
    • hydrophytes: Plants with bulbs that rest submerged under water
    • phanerophyte: Plants with dominant buds on branches which project freely into the air; normally woody perennials
    • therophyte: Annual plants that complete their lives rapidly in favourable conditions and survive the unfavourable cold or dry season in the form of seeds

life_history

  • label: Life history
  • description: Categorical description of plant’s life history
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • annual: Plant that lives for only a single year
    • biennial: Plant with a two-year lifespan
    • ephemeral: Very short-lived plant; the lifespan is usually only a few months
    • indefinite: Very long-lived plant, whose exact lifespan is unknown. Category also includes plants that reproduce vegetatively, such that their ‘genetic’ lifespan is indefinite
    • long_lived: Very long-lived plant, whose exact lifespan is unknown
    • perennial: Plant that lives for 3 or more growing seasons
    • short_lived_perennial: A short-lived perennial
    • short_lived: Unclear term that only suggests a plant is not long-lived - could be ephemeral, annual or biennial

lifespan

  • label: Life span (years)
  • description: Broad categories of plant life span, in years
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • post_fire_ephemeral: Plant that is short-lived following fires
    • <1: Plant that lives less than 1 year
    • <3: Plant that lives less than 3 years
    • <5: Plant that lives less than 5 years
    • <6: Plant that lives less than 6 years
    • >6: Plant that lives more than 6 years
    • <10: Plant that lives less than 10 years
    • <20: Plant that lives less than 20 years
    • <50: Plant that lives less than 50 years
    • <100: Plant that lives less than 100 years
    • >100: Plant that lives more than 100 years
    • 50-500: Plant that lives between 50-500
    • >500: Plant that lives more than 500 years
    • ?: Plant with unknown lifespan

sex_type

  • label: Plant sex type
  • description: Plant sex type
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • androdioecious: Taxa in which hermaphroditic and staminate (male) plants coexist within a population
    • andromonoecious: Taxa with hermaphrodite flowers and staminate flowers (producing just male gametes) on the same plant but no pistillate (female) flowers.
    • dioecious: Taxa that produce male and female flowers on separate plants
    • gynodioecious: Taxa in which hermaphroditic and pistillate (female) plants coexist within a population
    • gynomonoecious: Taxa with hermaphrodite flowers and pistillate flowers (producing just female gametes) on the same plant but no staminate (male) flowers.
    • hermaphrodite: Taxa with flowers that produce both male and female gametes; bisexual
    • monoecious: Taxa that have both male and female flowers on the same plant, but an individual flower produces only male or female gametes.
    • polygamous: Taxa with both unisexual and bisexual flowers on the same plant
    • polygamodioecious: Taxa where some flowers on a plant are hermaphrodite and other are pistillate (female) or staminate (male)
    • polygamonoecious: Taxa where some plants in a population have hermaphrodite and pistillate (female) flowers and others have hermaphrodite and staminate (male) flowers
    • trioecious: Taxa where plants in a population have either hermaphroditic (bisexual) flowers, pistillate (female) flowers, or staminate (male) flowers
    • unknown: inadequate information to assign a sex type

modified_NDVI

  • label: modified normalized difference vegetation index (modified NDVI)
  • description: Modified normalized difference vegetation index (modified NDVI), based on Landsat data
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1 dimensionless

modulus_of_elasticity_xylem

  • label: Modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus)
  • description: A measure of xylem’s resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it; definition for measurements on wood (secondary xylem)
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: 10 - 100000 MPa

modulus_of_elasticity_stem

  • label: A measure of the force required to bend a stem
  • description: A measure of the force required to bend a stem; This is the modulus of a compound tissue made up of bark and wood (or xylem) and potentially pith; could also be called structural modulus of elasticity
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: 10 - 100000 MPa

modulus_of_elasticity_bark

  • label: A measure of the force required to bend bark
  • description: A measure of the force required to bend bark
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: 10 - 100000 MPa

modulus_of_rupture

  • label: Bulk modulus of rupture
  • description: A measure of the force required to rupture xylem vessels
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: 1 - 10000 MPa

nitrogen_fixing

  • label: Plant nitrogen fixation capacity
  • description: Binary variable describing whether or not a plant hosts a nitrogen-fixing bacteria
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • 0: plant does not exhibit nitrogen-fixation
    • 1: plant does exhibit nitrogen-fixation

N_to_P_ratio

  • label: Ratio of N to P per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Ratio of N to P per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 g/g

osmotic_potential

  • label: Osmotic potential
  • description: Potential for water to move across a semi-permeable membrane based on solute concentration
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: -10 - 0 MPa

palisade_cell_length

  • label: Length of individual palisade cells
  • description: Length of individual palisade cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 10 - 1000 um

lower_palisade_cell_thickness

  • label: Lower palisade cell thickness
  • description: Thickness (length) of lower palisade cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 10 - 1000 um

upper_palisade_cell_thickness

  • label: Upper palisade cell thickness
  • description: Thickness (length) of upper palisade cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 10 - 1000 um

palisade_cell_width

  • label: Width of individual palisade cells
  • description: Width of individual palisade cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 1 - 50 um

palisade_layer_number

  • label: Number of layers of palisade cells
  • description: Number of layers of palisade cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 1 - 10 count

parasitic

  • label: Plant’s parasitic status
  • description: Whether or not a plant is parasitic
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • hemi-parasitic: Plant is hemi-parasitic
    • parasitic: Plant is parasitic
    • not_parasitic: Plant is not parasitic
    • root_parasitic: Plant that is a root parasite
    • stem_parasitic: Plant that is a stem parasite

pendulous_leaves

  • label: Pendulous leaves
  • description: Binary variable describing whether or not leaves are pendulous
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • not_pendulous: leaves are not pendulous
    • pendulous: leaves are pendulous

photosynthetic_bark

  • label: Bark photosynthesis
  • description: Binary variable indicating whether or not bark is photosynthetic
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • 0: bark is not photosynthetic
    • 1: bark is photosynthetic

photosynthetic_pathway

  • label: Photosynthetic pathway
  • description: Type of photosynthetic pathway displayed by plants
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • c3: Plant using the ‘standard’ photosynthetic pathway, where a 3-carbon compound is produced after the first stage in the photosynthetic pathway
    • c4: Plants in which the photosynthetic light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle are physically separated to reduce photo respiration
    • c3-c4: Taxa that shift between c3 and c4 photosynthesis
    • cam: Plants which display crassulacean acid metabolism
    • c3-cam: Taxa that shift between c3 and cam photosynthesis
    • c4-cam: Taxa that shift between c4 and cam photosynthesis
    • facultative_cam: Species that shifts between C3 and CAM photosynesis depending on water availablility.
    • unknown: Photosynthetic pathway unknown

photosynthetic_rate_per_area_ambient

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area
  • description: Rate at which a plant consumes carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, per unit leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/m2/s
  • allowable range: 0.25 - 50 umolCO2/m2/s

photosynthetic_rate_per_area_maximum

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area at saturating light and CO2 conditions
  • description: Rate at which a plant consumes carbon dioxide through photosynthesis at saturating light and CO2 conditions, per unit leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/m2/s
  • allowable range: 0.25 - 85 umolCO2/m2/s

photosynthetic_rate_per_area_saturated

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area at saturating light conditions
  • description: Rate at which a plant consumes carbon dioxide through photosynthesis at saturating light conditions but ambient CO2 conditions, per unit leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/m2/s
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 umolCO2/m2/s

photosynthetic_rate_per_dry_mass_ambient

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Maximum rate at which a plant consumes carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/g/s
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 umolCO2/g/s

photosynthetic_rate_per_dry_mass_maximum

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit leaf dry mass at saturating light and CO2 conditions
  • description: Maximum rate at which a plant consumes carbon dioxide through photosynthesis at saturating light and CO2 conditions, per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/g/s
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 umolCO2/g/s

photosynthetic_rate_per_dry_mass_saturated

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit leaf dry mass at saturating light conditions
  • description: Maximum rate at which a plant consumes carbon dioxide through photosynthesis at saturating light conditions but ambient CO2 conditions, per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/g/s
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 umolCO2/g/s

physical_defence

  • label: Physical defences
  • description: Physical defences
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • no_physical_defence: Neither spines nor stinging hairs
    • spines_or_thorns: Plant has spines or thorns
    • stinging_or_irritant_hairs: Stinging or irritant hairs

plant_growth_form

  • label: Plant growth form
  • description: Different growth forms displayed by plants, including both standard plant growth form descriptors (tree, shrub, etc.) and specific plant characteristics (i.e. parasitic)
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • aquatic: Grows primarily in water
    • aquatic_floating: Plant where most of the leaves are floating on water
    • aquatic_herb: Herb that grows primarily in water
    • aquatic_submerged: Plant where all the leaves are submerged in water
    • climber: Plant that climbs up another plant’s trunk, branches, rather than being able to support itself
    • climber_herb: Herbaceous plant that climbs up another plant
    • climber_liana: Liana (usually refers to a woody climber)
    • climber_palm: Palm that climbs up another plant
    • climber_shrub: Shrubby plant that climbs up another plant
    • climber_scrambler: Plant that climbs by scrambling
    • climber_tree: Tree that climbs up another plant
    • climber_twiner: Climber that ascends by twining (usually will refer to herbaceous climber, but not always)
    • climber_vine: Vine (usually will refer to herbaceous climber, but not always)
    • climber_vine_herbaceous: Vine, explicitly referring to herbareous taxa
    • climber_vine_woody: Vine whose stem is at least partially woody
    • climber_woody: Woody or thick (>2 cm) climbers with hooks, tendrils, adventitious roots, etc.
    • creeper: Creeper that roots along stems
    • cushion: Plant with tightly packed foliage help close to soil surface, with relatively even and rounded canopy boundary; a sub-category of herb in Cornellison, but possibly used for subshrubs as well by some
    • cycad: Cycad
    • epiphyte: Plant that grows on top of another plant
    • epiphyte_herb: Herb that grows on top of another plant
    • epiphyte_shrub: Shrub that grows on top of another plant
    • epiphyte_tree: Tree that grows on top of another plant
    • epiphyte_woody: Woody epiphyte
    • epiphyte_treelet: Tree that grows on top of another plant
    • erect_leafy: Plant essentially erect with leaves concentrated in the middle and/or top parts; a sub-category of herb
    • fern: A group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores
    • fern_tree: Tree fern
    • geophyte: A perennial plant with an underground food storage organ, such as a bulb, tuber, corm, or rhizome
    • graminoid: Herbaceous plants with a grass-like morphology; includes all entries of ‘grass’ and ‘sedge’ that are purely taxonomic descriptions, not indicating explicitly how the grass/sedge grows
    • graminoid_not_tussock: Herbaceous plants with a non-tussock grass-like morphology
    • graminoid_not_tussock_tall: Herbaceous plants with a non-tussock grass-like morphology that are more than 1 m in height
    • graminoid_tussock: Herbaceous plants with a tussock grass-like morphology; see also ‘tussock’
    • graminoid_tussock_tall: Herbaceous plants with a tussock grass-like morphology that are more than 1 m in height
    • grass-tree: Term specific refers to members of the family Xanthorrhoaceae, monocots with a tree-like growth-form
    • hemi-epiphyte: Plant that partially grows on top of another plant
    • hemi-epiphyte_shrub: Shrub that partially grows on top of another plant
    • hemi-epiphyte_tree: Tree that partially grows on top of another plant
    • hemi-parasite: A plant that derives some of its nutritional requirements from another living plant
    • herb: A seed-bearing plant which does not have a woody stem and dies down to the ground after flowering; when available this term has been divided into more detailed terms
    • herb_large: An herbaceous plant >0.5 m tall
    • leafless_shrub_tree: Shrubs and trees with green, non-succulent stems as the main photosynthetic structures
    • long_basal: Large leaves >0.5 m long emerging from the soil surface; a sub-category of herb
    • palm: Flowering plants in the family Arecaceae, most with large, compound evergreen leaves referred to as fronds
    • pandanus: Pandanus
    • parasite: A plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirements from another living plant
    • parasite_woody: A woody plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirements from another living plant
    • primitive: includes club moss, selaginella
    • prostrate: Plant that lies flat against the ground
    • prostrate_herb: Herbaceous plant that lies flat against the ground
    • prostrate_shrub: Woody plant that lies flat against the ground
    • reed: reed or rush; doesn’t specify exact growth form
    • rosette: Herb where the leaves are concentrated right at the ground surface; also termed ‘flat rosette’
    • rosette_erect: Rosette of leaves that is no flat on the ground; in Cornellison, this refers to semi-woody plant like a palm, but may have different meanings with some authors
    • saprophyte: Plant that acquires nutrients from decaying matter
    • semi_basal: Significant leaf area deployed both close to the soil surface and higher up the plant; a sub-category of herb
    • subshrub: A dwarf shrub, especially one that is only woody at the base
    • succulent_short: A plant < 0.5 m tall where some parts are thick and fleshy and usually involved in water storage
    • succulent_tall: A plant > 0.5 m tall where some parts are thick and fleshy and usually involved in water storage
    • short_basal: Leaves <0.5 m long concentrated very close to the soil surface (encompasses both prostrate and rosette); a sub-category of herb
    • shrub: A woody plant that has multiple stems arising at or near ground level
    • treelet: A woody plant that is intermediate between a shrub and a tree; also a short tree
    • tree: A tall, woody, perennial plant, usually with a single main trunk
    • tussock: Plant with many leaves from basal meristem forming prominent tufts

plant_type_by_resource_use

  • label: Water and salt tolerance and use strategies
  • description: Plants categories referencing their ability to tolerate/obtain water and/or salt in their environment
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • hydrohalophyte: Tidal swamp or ‘mangrove’ and coastal lagoon elements and temperate-zone salt-marsh taxa are classed together.
    • phreatophyte: Deep-rooted plants—usually trees—obtaining water from a deep underground source that may or may not be saline.
    • psammophile: Sand-loving plants commonly found in littoral strand or inland sandfields
    • weedy: This inexact term is meant to indicate a high degree of adaptability to sites, and proven tendency toward aggressive colonization of either dry or wet sites, or rarely, both. In general, weeds invade and colonize highly disturbed sites or areas.
    • xerohalophyte: Plants adapted to inland salt desert and saline habitats
    • xerophyte: Drought-tolerant and drought-adapted plants

plant_height

  • label: Plant height
  • description: Vegetative plant height
  • type: numeric
  • units: m
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 130 m

plant_width

  • label: Plant width
  • description: Width of the plant canopy
  • type: numeric
  • units: m
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 20 m

plant_breadth

  • label: Plant breadth
  • description: Breadth of the plant canopy (smaller of two dimensions)
  • type: numeric
  • units: m
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 20 m

ploidy

  • label: Chromosome ploidy
  • description: Chromosome ploidy
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 1 - 4 count

pollination_syndrome

  • label: Pollination syndrome
  • description: Pollination syndrome
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • abiotic: Pollination occurs through wind, water, or collision of free-floating particles
    • animal: Generic catch-all for any form of animal pollination; change to biotic
    • bat: Bat-pollinated
    • bee: Bee-pollinated
    • beetle: Beetle-pollinated
    • bird: Bird-pollinated
    • butterfly: Butterfly-pollinated
    • fly: Fly-pollinated
    • insect: Insect-pollinated, type of insect not specified
    • moth: Moth-pollinated
    • none: Spore-producing plants
    • vertebrate: Vertebrate-pollinated, broadly defined
    • wind: wind-pollinated
    • pollination_rare: plants mostly reproduce through vegetative spread and flowering is rare

pollination_system

  • label: Pollination system
  • description: Pollination system
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • abiotic: Taxa use nonliving methods such as wind and water for pollen transfer
    • biotic_unspecialised: Taxa use living methods for pollen transfer, but do not have a specialist pollinator
    • biotic_specialised: Taxa depend upon a specialist pollinator for pollen transfer
    • self_pollination: Flowers are self-pollinated or pollinated by another flower on the same plant

regen_strategy

  • label: Regeneration strategy
  • description: Different regeneration strategies displayed by plants. Trait values include both generic terms and quite specific ones. See Pausus, Lamont et al. 2018, doi.org/10.1111/nph.14982 for trait values used and detailed desciptions of recolonization ability and level of fire protection provided by each regeneration strategy. This trait includes terminology for storage organs and regeneration strategies following fire. The trait “fire_response” is a binary trait distinguishing between fire-killed and regenerating taxa.
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • aboveground: Plants that resprout from an aboveground organ, but the type of organ isn’t specified.
    • aboveground_caudex: Plant regenerates from above-ground apical meristems. Also termed a caudex. Term refers to palm-like plants with aerial buds that resprout, including grass trees, palms, tree ferns, and pandanus.
    • aboveground_other: vegetative buds or plant fragments that can disperse and produce new plants (including axillary buds, bulbils and turions)
    • adventitious_root_buds: Adventitious root buds on main root or lateral roots
    • apical_buds: Plant resprouts from apical buds.
    • basal: Plant regenerates from the base of the stem (versus underground). Generally synonymous with “lignotuber”, especially among Australian plants.
    • basal_stem_buds: Plant resprouts from basal stem buds.
    • belowground: Plants that resprout from a belowground organ, but the type of organ isn’t specified.
    • belowground_caudex: Plant regenerates from belowe-ground caudex.
    • bud-bearing_root: Lateral root that produces vertical suckers, adventitious roots
    • bulb: Below ground storage organ derived from stem (and sometimes leaf) tissue.
    • coppice: Shoots regrowing from base of stem following managed cutting to ground level
    • corm: Below ground storage organ derived from stem tissue.
    • epicormic: Plants that resprout from epicormic buds; these are buds beneath the bark on stems that survive fire
    • fleshy_underground_organ: Plants that use fleshy, generally underground organs (swellings) to regenerate; examples include corms, tubers, bulbs, and caudex
    • lignotuber: Swollen woody structures are located at the transition between the stem base and root crown of woody shrubs, mallees and small trees, and are formed from stem tissues. Buds are located over the entire structure. No colonisation ability.
    • fire_killed: Plant that is fire-killed and regenerates only by seed. (An obligate re-seeder.)
    • resprouts: Plant reprouts following fire
    • resprouts_non_fire_disturbance: Fire-killed plants that have the ability to resprout following a disturbance other than fire
    • rhizome: Plant has an underground stem; this stem may be woody or non-woody. Rhizomes are both a mechanism for vegetative spread and a strategy to survive fire.
    • root_crown: Plant that produces a few vertical shoots from the root crown.
    • root_tuber: Below ground storage organ derived from root tissue.
    • seed: Plants that regenerate only or primarily by seed. These are mostly fire-killed taxa, but the not always
    • stem_buds: Plant resprouts from stem buds (separate to epicormic buds)
    • stem_tuber: Below ground storage organ derived from stem tissue.
    • stolon: Plants having horizontal branches (stems) from the base of the plant that produce new plants from buds at its tip or nodes
    • woody_rootstock: Plant that regenerate by resprouting from wood rootstock.
    • woody_rootstock_or_lignotuber: Plant that regenerates by resprouting from either a woody rootstock or lignotuber.
    • no_storage_organ: No storage organ present
    • none: Does not regenerate vegetatively
    • storage_organ: Storage organ present, but the type is unknown
    • underground: Plants that resprout from an underground organ, but the type of organ isn’t specified.
    • unknown: Assume this trait value means it is unknown if a storage organ is present or a plant can regenerate, not that the type is unknown

reproductive_maturity

  • label: Age of plants at reproductive maturity
  • description: Age of plants at reproductive maturity, by category. In most studies, ‘reproductive maturity’ refers to the time to first flowering or to first seedset. However, for several big compilations with fire response data, the term ‘reproductive maturity’ instead refers to a seed load or a group of suckers sufficient to replace the adult population. This trait encompasses all records referring to ‘reproductive maturity.’
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • <1: Plants reach reproductive maturity before age 1
    • 1-2: Plants reach reproductive maturity between ages 1-2
    • 3-5: Plants reach reproductive maturity between ages 3-5
    • 1-5: Plants reach reproductive maturity between ages 1-5
    • 5-10: Plants reach reproductive maturity between ages 5-10
    • 5-20: Plants reach reproductive maturity between ages 5-20
    • 10-20: Plants reach reproductive maturity between ages 10-20
    • >20: Plants reach reproductive maturity after age 20
    • 20-40: Plants reach reproductive maturity between ages 20-40

reproductive_maturity_numeric

  • label: Age of plants at reproductive maturity
  • description: Age of plants at reproductive maturity, numeric
  • type: numeric
  • units: years
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 years

reproductive_maturity_secondary

  • label: Years required to reach secondary reproductive maturity following disturbance (fire)
  • description: Number of years post-distiurbance required for species that survive the disturbance to resprout and re-reach reproductive maturity. This trait is most commonly used for species that resprout following fire
  • type: numeric
  • units: years
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 years

resorption_leaf_N

  • label: Nitrogen resorption from leaves
  • description: Nitrogen resorption from leaves
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: -1.1 - 1 dimensionless

resorption_leaf_P

  • label: Phosphorus resorption from leaves
  • description: Phosphorus resorption from leaves
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: -1.1 - 1 dimensionless

resprouting_proportion_individuals

  • label: Proportion of individuals that resprout
  • description: Proportion of individuals that resprout following a fire across a population; this trait is generally used in studies looking at resprouting vs. death following a fire
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 dimensionless

resprouting_strength

  • label: Ratio of stem count post-fire to pre-fire
  • description: Ratio of stem count post-fire to pre-fire at an individual or population level; this trait is appropriate to use for plants that have many stems from the base (shrubs, herbs, graminoids) where the number of stems before and after fire is censused. It is effectively a continuous measure of resprouting strength conditioned on initial size
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0 - 4 dimensionless

root_C_per_dry_mass

  • label: Root carbon (C) content per unit root dry mass
  • description: Root carbon (C) content per unit root dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 50 - 750 mg/g

root_N_per_dry_mass

  • label: Root nitrogen (N) content per unit root dry mass
  • description: Root nitrogen (N) content per unit root dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

root_delta13C

  • label: Root carbon (C) isotope signature (delta 13C)
  • description: Root carbon stable isotope signature
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -50 - 0 per mille

root_delta15N

  • label: Root nitrogen (N) isotope signature (delta 15N)
  • description: Root nitrogen stable isotope signature
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -25 - 75 per mille

root_xylem_delta15N

  • label: Xylem nitrogen (N) isotope signature (delta 15N) from roots
  • description: Xylem nitrogen stable isotope signature from roots
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -25 - 75 per mille

root_diameter

  • label: Root diameter
  • description: Root diameter; should only be used to record the maximum root diameter
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1000 mm

root_distribution_coefficient

  • label: Root biomass depth distribution coefficient
  • description: Root biomass depth distribution coefficient (‘B’ from Gale & Grigal (1987), where high values indicate root biomass allocated deeper in the soil).
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.5 - 1 dimensionless

root_dry_matter_content

  • label: Root dry mass per unit root fresh mass (Root dry matter content)
  • description: Root dry mass per unit root fresh mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 10 - 1000 mg/g

root_fine_root_coarse_root_ratio

  • label: Volume of fine root / Volume of coarse root
  • description: Volume of fine root (<0.5mm diametre) / Volume of coarse root (>0.5mm diametre)
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm3/mm3
  • allowable range: 0.05 - 50 mm3/mm3

root_mass_fraction

  • label: Fraction of plant dry mass comprised of root material
  • description: Fraction of plant dry mass comprised of root material
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 mg/mg

root_morphology

  • label: Categorical root descriptions, sense Cannon 1949
  • description: Categorical root descriptions sensu Cannon 1949, A Tentative Classification of Root Systems, Ecology, doi.org/10.2307/1932458
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • type_i: The primary root is fibrous or fleshy and is relatively long; mesophytic
    • type_ii: The primary root is relatively short and is fibrous. Roots are well branched in a dry habitat but branch little in one that is wet.
    • type_iii: The primary root is usually long and fibrous. The first order lateral roots are well branched and are usually short; they are rather evenly distributed along the primary root; xerophytic
    • type_iv: The primary root is usually long and slender like that of Type II. The first order lateral roots are well branched. Those closest to the surface of the ground, or not far below, are relatively long; xerophytic and mesophytic
    • type_v: The primary root is divided-forked or branched-and fibrous, and with few first order lateral roots, or, in age, apparently with none; xerophytic
    • type_vi: The primary root is usually as in Type V. The first order lateral roots are mostly on the upper portion of the primary root and are thus relatively superficial; xerophytic or in well aerated sandy soil where the rainfall is not light.
    • type_vii: Adventitious roots that are in one group and arise on a short horizontal, or vertical, axis of the shoot. They are fibrous or fleshly; mesophytic and hydrophytic
    • type_viii: Adventitious roots that are in one group and are fibrous and fleshy, or fibrous and thick. The fibrous adventitious roots are absorbing-anchoring roots and are usually with laterals to the second order; meophytic
    • type_ix: Adventitious roots that arise on the aerial stem and branches of some herbaceous taxa, shrubs, and trees; on creepers, vines, and runners; and on subterranean rhizomes and stolons

root_shoot_ratio

  • label: Root to shoot ratio (dry mass)
  • description: Ratio of root dry mass to shoot dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg_root/mg_shoot
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 15 mg_root/mg_shoot

root_structure

  • label: Root structure
  • description: Specific specialized types of root structures and root symbioses. https://www.mycorrhizas.info/ provides detailed information for types of mycorrhizal associations.
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • arbuscular_mycorrhizal: Symbiosis in which the mycorrhizal fungi does penetrate the cortex cells of the plant roots and its hyphae form arbuscules and vesicles inside the plant root; endomycorrhizal, AM, VAM
    • carnivorous: non-mycorrhizal carnivorous root
    • cluster_roots: cluster roots in non-proteoid taxa
    • coiling_vam: Associations that spread predominantly by intracellular hyphal coils within roots
    • dauciform_root: A type of cluster root found in the family Cyperaceae
    • ectomycorrhizal: Symbiosis in which the mycorrhizal fungi does not penetrate the cortex cells of the plant roots
    • ericoid_mycorrhizal: A form of arbuscular mycorrhizal relationship only found on plants in the order Ericales. The fungi’s hyphae penetrate the plant root but do not form arbuscules
    • fine_roots: Particularly fine roots for nutrient uptake
    • haustorium: highly modified stem or root of a parasitic plant, such as mistletoe , or a specialized branch or tube originating from a hairlike filament (hypha) of a fungus. The haustorium penetrates the tissues of a host and absorbs nutrients and water.
    • hemiparasitic_root: Partially parasitic root
    • long_root_hairs: Specialised long root hairs
    • mycorrhizal: Mycorrhizal, type not specified
    • non_mycorrhizal: Plants lacking a mycorrhizal symbiont
    • orchid_mycorrhizal: A mycorrhizal relationship specific to orchid taxa, and for most orchids, essential for seedlings to establish
    • parasitic_root: Parasitic root
    • proteoid_root: Also known as cluster roots, are plant roots that form clusters of closely spaced short lateral rootlets and aid in nutrient upake in nutrient-poor soils; common in members of the family Proteaceae, but present in other families as well
    • root_hairs: Specialised root hairs
    • sand-binding: Persistent sheaths of sand that form around the roots of taxa in the families Restionaceae, Cyperaceae, Haemodoraceae, and Lomandraceae in western Australia. Assumed to function in nutrient uptake.
    • subepidermal_mycorrhizal: Mycorrhizae where hyphae grow in a cavity under epidermal cells. Only in the genus Thysanotus (family Laxmaniaceae).
    • unknown: root structures unknown

root_wood_density

  • label: Root wood density
  • description: Root wood dry mass per unit root wood fresh volume
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mm3
  • allowable range: 0.05 - 10 mg/mm3

salt_tolerance

  • label: Salt tolerance strategies
  • description: Salt-tolerance categories; Also see ‘soil_salinity_tolerance’ for studies reporting actual soil salinity levels taxa can tolerate. Kew data on salt tolerance included in ‘water_tolerance’ trait
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • glycophyte: Plants that cannot survive even one tenth the salt concentration found in seawater
    • halophyte: Plants that complete their life cycle in a salty environment; many survive in seawater or even higher concentrations of salt
    • halophyte_moderate: Plant that is moderately tolerant of soil salinity/sodicity
    • hydrohalophyte: Tidal swamp or ‘mangrove’ and coastal lagoon elements and temperate-zone salt-marsh taxa are classed together.
    • salt_spray_tolerant: Plant that is tolerant of salt spray (typically inhabiting near-coastal environments)
    • salinity_tolerance_undefined: Plants ability to tolerate salt is unknown
    • xerohalophyte: Plants adapted to inland salt desert and saline habitats

sapwood_specific_conductivity

  • label: Sapwood specific conductivity (Ks)
  • description: Ks; Describes the flow rate of water (kg/s) along a stem for a given drop in pressure (1/MPa), normalised to the length of the segment (1/m). Calculated as hydraulic conductivity divided by the sapwood cross-sectional area where the measurement is taken.
  • type: numeric
  • units: kg/m/s/MPa
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 500 kg/m/s/MPa

sapwood_specific_conductivity_theoretical

  • label: Theoretical sapwood specific conductivity (Ks)
  • description: Theoretical Ks or Kp; Describes the theoretical flow rate of water (kg/s) along a stem for a given drop in pressure (1/MPa). Calculated as theoretical Kh, calculated based on Hagen-Poiseuille’s law, divided by the microscopically determined cross-sectional area without bark and pit.
  • type: numeric
  • units: kg/m/s/MPa
  • allowable range: 0.05 - 5000 kg/m/s/MPa

transverse_branch_area_specific_conductivity

  • label: Sapwood specific conductivity (Ks)
  • description: Describes the flow rate of water (kg/s) along a stem for a given drop in pressure (1/MPa), normalised to the length of the segment (1/m). Calculated as hydraulic conductivity divided by the transverse branch area where the measurement is taken.
  • type: numeric
  • units: kg/m/s/MPa
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 500 kg/m/s/MPa

seed_breadth

  • label: Seed breadth
  • description: Shorter width axis of a seed; orthogonal to its length
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 mm

seed_count

  • label: Seed count
  • description: Number of seeds produced by a plant
  • type: numeric
  • units: n
  • allowable range: 0 - 1e+05 n

seed_length

  • label: Seed length
  • description: Longest seed dimension
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1000 mm

seed_mass

  • label: Seed dry mass
  • description: Seed dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg
  • allowable range: 1e-05 - 1e+06 mg

seed_mass_reserve

  • label: Seed dry mass reserve
  • description: Energy reserves stored in seeds that are mobilized at the time of germination; on a carbon dry mass basis
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg
  • allowable range: 1e-04 - 1000 mg

seed_oil_content

  • label: Seed oil content
  • description: Seed oil content as a fraction of total seed weight, usually on a dry weight basis
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 1e-04 - 1 g/g

seed_N_concentration

  • label: Seed nitrgeon concentration
  • description: Seed nitrogen (N) content per unit seed mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 10 - 1000 mg/g

seed_K_concentration

  • label: Seed potassium concentration
  • description: Seed potassium (K) content per unit seed mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 mg/g

seed_Mg_concentration

  • label: Seed magnesium concentration
  • description: Seed magnesium (Mg) content per unit seed mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

seed_S_concentration

  • label: Seed sulphur concentration
  • description: Seed sulphur (S) content per unit seed mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

seed_Ca_concentration

  • label: Seed calcium concentration
  • description: Seed calcium (Ca) content per unit seed mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 mg/g

seed_P_concentration

  • label: Seed phosphorus concentration
  • description: Seed phosphorus (P) content per unit seed mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 mg/g

seed_protein_content

  • label: Seed protein content
  • description: Seed protein content as a fraction of total seed weight
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 1e-05 - 1 g/g

seed_shape

  • label: Seed shape
  • description: Possible seed shapes. Note that some terms currently used refer to 2-dimensional shapes, not 3-dimensional shapes.
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • angular: Doesn’t refer to a specific shape, but simply that instead of being smoothly rounded, it is angular
    • broadly_ellipsoid: Like ellipsoid, but broader
    • broadly_obovoid: A 3-dimensional shape; like obovoid, but particularly broad in the middle
    • circular: Both width dimensions are similar; rounded; REPLACE WITH ‘globoid’ - maybe
    • comma_shaped: Seed shaped liked a comma; see also ‘falcate’
    • compressed: Seed flatter
    • compressed_cylinder: Like cylinder, but a flatter 3-dimensional shape
    • compressed_ellipsoid: Like ellipsoid, but a flatter 3-dimensional shape
    • compressed_globoid: Like globoid, but a flatter 3-dimensional shape
    • compressed_lachrimiform: Like lachrimiform, but a flatter 3-dimensional shape
    • compressed_obovoid: Like obovoid, but a flatter 3-dimensional shape
    • compressed_ovoid: Like ovoid, but a flatter 3-dimensional shape
    • compressed_sectoroid: Like sectoroid, but a flatter 3-dimensional shape
    • conical: Shaped like a cone; the opposite of turbinate
    • cordiform: Heart-shaped
    • cylindrical: A 3-dimensional shape; shaped like a cylinder; see also ‘terete’ which refers to particular thin cylindrical shape; should maybe be cylinder?
    • discoid: Resembling a disc, with two convex faces; similar to plano-convex and lenticular, flatter
    • discoid_two_lobed: Resembling a disc, but with two lobes
    • ellipsoid: A 3-dimensional shape; elliptic in outline and with a length:breadth ratio between 3:2 and 2:1
    • elongated_lachrimiform: Like lachrimiform, but extended along the longest axis
    • elongated_ovoid: Like ovoid, but extended along the longest axis
    • elongated_pyramidal: Like pyramidal, but extended along the longest axis
    • elongated_reniform: Like reniform, but extended along the longest axis
    • elongated_sectoroid: Like sectoroid, but extended along the longest axis
    • falcate: Sickle-shaped; see also ‘comma-shaped’
    • flat: Suggests a quite flattened seed, but no information about shape
    • fusiform: Spindle-shaped, cigar-shaped, circular in cross-section and tapering at both ends
    • globoid: Globe-shaped; includes ‘globular’ and ‘globose’
    • inflated_pyramidal: Like pyramidal, but inflated
    • inflated_trigonal_pyramidal: Like trigonal_pyramidal, but inflated
    • irregular: Irregular shape
    • irregular_lachrimiform: Like lachrimiform, but somewhat irregular
    • irregular_ovoid: Like ovoid, but somewhat irregular
    • lachrimiform: A 3-dimensional shape; tear-shaped
    • lanceolate: A 2-dimensional shape; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle; in reference to a seed, assume a rounded 2-D shape; REPLACE WITH OVOID
    • lenticular: A 3-dimensional shape; shaped like a biconvex lens. Similar to plano-convex??
    • muricate: has numerous short hard outgrowths
    • obclavate: A 2 or 3-dimensional shape; slender, broadening towards the base; club-shaped, with the thickened part at the base
    • obloid: A 3-dimensional shape, where the length is a few times greater than the width, with sides almost parallel and ends rounded.
    • obovoid: A 3-dimensional shape; similar to ovoid, but attached at the narrower end and with a length:breadth ratio between 3:2 and 2:1
    • orbicular: Fairly flat, but round in 2-dimensional outline; see also compressed_globoid
    • ovoid: Egg-shaped (i.e., widest below the middle)
    • pointed_ovoid: Like ovoid, but with one pointier end
    • pointed_samara: A type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall; variant that is more pointed; not truly a shape
    • pyramidal: Pyramid; cross-section unknown
    • pyriform: A 3-dimensional shape; resembling a pear, attached at the broader end
    • rectangular: REPLACE WITH ‘rectangular_prism’
    • rectangular_prism: Prism that is rectangular in cross=section
    • reniform: Having a circular or roughly circular shape with a notch, like a kidney
    • rhomboid: Diamond shaped in outline with the broadest axis in the middle and with a length:breadth ratio between 3:2 and 2:1
    • round: Seed with round outline; seems to be a subcategory of samara
    • rounded_samara: A type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall; variant that is rounder; not truly a shape
    • samara: A type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall; not truly a shape
    • sectoroid: Shaped like an orange segment
    • semigloboid: Semi-circular in cross-section
    • sinusoidal: S-shaped; includes ‘sigmoidal’
    • spathulate: Spoon-shaped
    • spherical: A 3-dimensional shape; round with all dimensions approximately equal
    • spheroid: A 3-dimensional shape; nearly, but imperfectly spherical
    • square_prism: Prism that is square in cross=section
    • square_pyramidal: Pyramid that is square in cross-section
    • subcylindrical: Nearly or almost cylindrical in shape
    • subgloboid: Nearly or almost globoid or spheroid in shape
    • suborbicular: Nearly or almost orbicular in shape
    • subtriangular: Nearly or almost ‘trigonal_prism’ in shape
    • terete: Circular in cross-section; more or less cylindrical without grooves or ridges
    • triangular: subset of samara possibly; 3-d structure should be trigonal_prism or trigonal_pyramidal
    • trigonal_prism: Prism that is triangular in cross-section
    • trigonal_pyramidal: Pyramid that is triangular in cross-section
    • turbinate: A 3-dimensional shape; top shaped; inversely conical
    • wedge_shaped: A 2 or 3-dimensional shape; tapers to a point at one end; includes the 2-D classificatiion “cuneate” and possibly plants that are more conical in outline

seed_texture

  • label: Seed texture
  • description: Texture of a seed
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • acutely_reticulate: UNKNOWN
    • bumpy: UNKNOWN
    • chartaceous: UNKNOWN
    • ciliate: UNKNOWN
    • costate: seed surface with a thickened linear ridge
    • deeply_reticulate: UNKNOWN
    • deeply_rugose: seed surface deeply wrinkled
    • dimpled: UNKNOWN
    • finely_reticulate: UNKNOWN
    • finely_rugose: seed surface finely wrinkled
    • finely_textured: seed surface with a fine-scaled pattern
    • fluted: UNKNOWN
    • hairs: seed surface hairy
    • lineolate: UNKNOWN
    • micronate-tubercular: UNKNOWN
    • multi-faceted: UNKNOWN
    • papillate: UNKNOWN
    • papillose: seed surface covered with short blunt protruberances
    • pitted: seed surface pitted
    • plumose: UNKNOWN
    • raised_edge: UNKNOWN
    • reticulate: UNKNOWN
    • ribbed: UNKNOWN
    • rough: seed surface rough
    • rugose: wrinkled
    • scabrous: rough (synonym seed)
    • scalar: UNKNOWN
    • scaly: UNKNOWN
    • shallowly_costate: seed surface with a shallow linear ridge
    • shallowly_pitted: seed surface with shallow pits
    • shallowly_reticulate: seed surface resembles a shallow net or network
    • shallowly_rugose: seed surface with shallow wrinkles
    • slightly_rugose: seed surface slightly wrinkled
    • smooth: seed surface smooth
    • stellate: seed surface covered with hairs with radiating papillae
    • striate: seed surface marked with more or less parallel longitudinal ridges
    • tomentose: seed surface covered with densely matted woolly hairs
    • tuberculate: seed surface covered with small rounded warts, protuberances or nodules
    • undulate: seed surface wavy
    • velutinous: seed surface covered with short, dense, silky, upright hairs; soft and velvety
    • very_rough: seed surface very rough

seed_viability

  • label: Seed viability
  • description: Proportion of seeds that are viable
  • type: numeric
  • units: n/n
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 n/n

seed_volume

  • label: Seed volume
  • description: Volume of a seed
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm3
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1e+05 mm3

seed_width

  • label: Seed width
  • description: Longest width dimension of a seed; orthogonal to the length
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 mm

soil_seedbank

  • label: Seeds present in soil seedbank
  • description: Binary variable indicating if seeds present in soil seedbank; see also ‘seed_longevity’, ‘seed_storage_location’, ‘canopy_seedbank’, and ‘serotiny’
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • 0: Seeds not present in soil seedbank
    • 1: Seeds present in soil seedbank

seed_storage_location

  • label: Location where seeds are stored at maturity
  • description: Location where seeds are stored at maturity; see also ‘seed_longevity’, ‘soil_seedbank’, ‘canopy_seedbank’, and ‘serotiny’
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • canopy: Seeds stored in the canopy, usually still within a woody cone
    • soil: Seeds stored in the soil
    • none: Seeds are not stored
    • not_canopy: Seed explicitly not stored in the canopy; other storage locations unknown

seed_longevity

  • label: Seed longevity
  • description: Seed longevity
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • short-lived: Seedbank survives for weeks
    • intermediate: Seedbank survives for months to less than a year
    • long-lived: Seedbank survives for more than 10 years
    • short_lived_in_soil: Propagule is short-lived in soil
    • short_persistent_in_soil: Propagule is persistent in soil 1 to 5 years
    • short_persistent_in_soil_b: Propagule is persistent in soil for less than 2 years
    • long_persistent_in_soil: Propagule is persistent in soil for more than 5 years
    • long_persistent_in_soil_b: Propagule is persistent in soil for more than 2 years
    • persistent_in_canopy: Propagule persistent in canopy for unspecified length of time
    • persistent_in_soil: Propagule persistent in soil for unspecified length of time
    • short_persistent_in_canopy: Propagule persistent in canopy for 1 to 5 years
    • long_persistent_in_canopy: Propagule persistent in canopy for more than 5 years
    • persistent: Propagule persistent, location not specified
    • transient: Propagule transient, location not specified
    • transient_in_canopy: Propagule transient in canopy
    • transient_in_soil: Propagule transient in soil
    • widely_dispersed: Seed longevity not important, as seeds are widely dispersed and always available for germination

seed_release

  • label: Serotiny
  • description: When a fruit or cone only releases its seeds following an environmental trigger, often fire; ; see also ‘seed_longevity’, ‘seed_storage_location’, ‘soil_seedbank’, ‘canopy_seedbank’, and ‘serotiny’
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • serotinous: Plant releases its seeds following an environmental trigger (usually fire)
    • mature_en_mass: Seeds released en masse when mature (eg annually)
    • gradual_release: Seeds maturing and released gradually from parent

serotiny

  • label: Serotiny
  • description: Categorical variable describing whether a fruit or cone only releases its seeds following an environmental trigger, often fire
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • not_serotinous: Plant does not display serotiny
    • serotinous: Plant serotinous, level not specified
    • serotiny_low: Plant displays a low level of serotiny
    • serotiny_moderate: Plant displays a moderate level of serotiny
    • serotiny_high: Plant displays a high level of serotiny

seedling_first_leaf

  • label: First leaf style
  • description: Binary variable distinguishing between seedlings where the first leaf is scale-like (cataphyll) versus leaf-like.
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • scale-like: When the first leaf at germination is scale-like, also referred to as a cataphyll
    • leaf-like: When the first leaf at germination is leaf-like

seedling_first_node

  • label: Leaf count at first node
  • description: Binary variable distinguishing between seedlings where the leaves at the first node are single versus paired.
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • single: When there is a single leaf at the first node
    • paired: When there is a pair of leaves at the first node

senesced_leaf_Al_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf aluminium (Al) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf aluminium (Al) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 mg/g

senesced_leaf_B_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf boron (B) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf boron (B) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 10 mg/g

senesced_leaf_C_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf carbon (C) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf carbon (C) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: %
  • allowable range: 10 - 100 %

senesced_leaf_Ca_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf calcium (Ca) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf calcium (Ca) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1000 mg/g

senesced_leaf_Cu_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf copper (Cu) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf copper (Cu) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 mg/kg

senesced_leaf_Fe_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf iron (Fe) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf iron (Fe) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 1 - 10000 mg/kg

senesced_leaf_K_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf potassium (K) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf potassium (K) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

senesced_leaf_Mg_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf magnesium (Mg) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf magnesium (Mg) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 mg/g

senesced_leaf_Mn_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf manganese (Mn) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf manganese (Mn) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 1 - 10000 mg/kg

senesced_leaf_Mo_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf molybdenum (Mo) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf molybdenum (Mo) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 0 - 30 mg/kg

senesced_leaf_N_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf nitrogen (N) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf nitrogen (N) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 100 mg/g

senesced_leaf_Na_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf sodium (Na) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf sodium (Na) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 100 - 20000 mg/kg

senesced_leaf_Ni_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf nickel (Ni) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf nickel (Ni) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 10 - 1e+05 mg/kg

senesced_leaf_P_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf phosphorus (P) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf phosphorus (P) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.005 - 15 mg/g

senesced_leaf_S_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf sulphur (S) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf sulphur (S) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 100 - 50000 mg/kg

senesced_leaf_Zn_per_dry_mass

  • label: Senesced leaf zinc (Zn) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • description: Senesced leaf zinc (Zn) content per unit leaf dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/kg
  • allowable range: 0 - 100 mg/kg

snow_tolerance

  • label: Snow tolerance
  • description: Description of a taxon’s tolerance to snow cover
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • not_applicable: Taxa is virtually never confronted with snow in nature and the response is unknown
    • intolerant: Taxa is frost tender and known to be killed by any snow
    • days: Taxa can tolerate snow for days (typically less than 1 week)
    • weeks: Taxa can tolerate snow for weeks (typically less than 1 month)
    • months: Taxa can tolerate snow for months

soil_salinity_tolerance

  • label: Salt tolerance
  • description: Maximum salinity tolerated by a taxon, reported as the conductivity of the soil
  • type: numeric
  • units: dS/m
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 dS/m

soluable_protein_per_area

  • label: Soluble protein per leaf area
  • description: Mass of soluble protein per leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/m2
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 20 g/m2

insoluable_protein_per_area

  • label: Insoluble protein per leaf area
  • description: Mass of insoluble protein per leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/m2
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 20 g/m2

leaf_total_non-structural_carbohydrates_per_area

  • label: Total non-structural carbohydrates per leaf area
  • description: Total non-structural carbohydrates per leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/m2
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 50 g/m2

leaf_total_non-structural_carbohydrates_per_mass

  • label: Total non-structural carbohydrates per leaf mass
  • description: Total non-structural carbohydrates per leaf mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 10 - 200 mg/g

soluable_starch_per_area

  • label: Soluble starch per leaf area
  • description: Mass of soluble starch per leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/m2
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 g/m2

soluable_sugars_per_area

  • label: Soluble sugars per leaf area
  • description: Mass of soluble sugars per leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/m2
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 g/m2

leaf_soluable_starch_per_mass

  • label: Soluble starch per leaf mass
  • description: Mass of soluble starch per leaf mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 200 mg/g

leaf_soluable_sugars_per_mass

  • label: Soluble sugars per leaf mass
  • description: Mass of soluble sugars per leaf mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 200 mg/g

stem_soluable_starch_per_mass

  • label: Soluble starch per stem mass
  • description: Mass of soluble starch per stem mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

stem_soluable_sugars_per_mass

  • label: Soluble sugars per stem mass
  • description: Mass of soluble sugars per stem mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 200 mg/g

root_soluable_starch_per_mass

  • label: Soluble starch per root mass
  • description: Mass of soluble starch per root mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

root_soluable_sugars_per_mass

  • label: Soluble sugars per root mass
  • description: Mass of soluble sugars per root mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 1 - 200 mg/g

specific_leaf_area

  • label: Leaf area per unit leaf dry mass (specific leaf area, SLA)
  • description: Leaf area per unit leaf dry mass; SLA
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm2/mg
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 500 mm2/mg

specific_root_area

  • label: Root area per unit root dry mass (specific root area)
  • description: Root area per unit root dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm2/mg
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 mm2/mg

specific_root_length

  • label: Root length per unit root dry mass (specific root length, SRL)
  • description: Root length per unit root dry mass; SRL
  • type: numeric
  • units: m/g
  • allowable range: 0.5 - 5000 m/g

specific_taproot_length

  • label: Taproot length per unit root dry mass (specific tap root length, STRL)
  • description: Taproot length per unit root dry mass. This trait measures the efficiency of taproot length per unit mass during the very early stage of growth when seedlings need to reach reliable water.
  • type: numeric
  • units: m/g
  • allowable range: 0.5 - 5000 m/g

spinescence

  • label: Spinescence
  • description: Degree to which a plant is defended by spines, thorns and/or prickles; definition and trait values based on Perez-Harguindeguy 2016.
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • 0_no_spines: (0) No spines.
    • 1_low_density_soft_spines: (1) Low or very local density of soft spines <5mm long; plant may sting or prickle when hit carelessly, but not impart strong pain.
    • 2_high_density_soft_spines: (2) High density of soft spines, intermediate density of spines of intermediate hardness, or low density of hard, sharp spines >5mm long; plant causes actual pain when hit carelessly.
    • 3_high_density_hard_spines_to_5mm: (3) Intermediate or high density of hard, sharp spines >5mm long; plant causes strong pain when hit carelessly.
    • 4_high_density_hard_spines_to_20mm: (4) Intermediate or high density of hard, sharp spines >20mm long; plant may cause significant wounds when hit carelessly.
    • 5_high_density_hard_spines_to_100mm: (5) Intermediate or high density of hard, sharp spines >100mm long; plant is dangerous to careless large mammals, including humans.
    • spines_present: spines present, details not given

spongy_mesophyll_thickness

  • label: Spongy mesophyll cell thickness
  • description: Thickness of the spongy mesophyll cells
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 10 - 1000 um

starch_per_area

  • label: Starch per leaf area
  • description: Mass of starch per leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/m2
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 50 g/m2

stem_C_per_dry_mass

  • label: Stem carbon (C) content per unit stem dry mass
  • description: Stem carbon (C) content per unit stem dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 100 - 1000 mg/g

stem_count_categorical

  • label: Stem Count, categorical
  • description: Number of stems present, expressed in groups, where categories were 1=1; 2-3=2; 4-10=3; 11-30=4; and >30=5. Used by Peter Vesk.
  • type: numeric
  • units: count
  • allowable range: 0 - 5 count

stem_cross_section_area

  • label: Stem cross-sectional area
  • description: Cross-sectional area of the stem
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm2
  • allowable range: 1 - 1000 mm2

stem_cross_section_area_no_bark

  • label: Stem cross-sectional area without bark
  • description: Cross-sectional area of the stem once bark is removed
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm2
  • allowable range: 1 - 1000 mm2

stem_dry_matter_content

  • label: Stem dry mass per unit stem fresh mass (Stem dry matter content)
  • description: Stem dry mass per unit stem fresh mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 100 - 1000 mg/g

stem_hydraulic_conductivity

  • label: Hydraulic conductivity (Kh)
  • description: Kh; Measure of how efficiently water is transported through the leaf, determined as the ratio of water flow rate through the leaf to the difference in water potential across the leaf, standardised to leaf area; units same as mg*m/s/MPa
  • type: numeric
  • units: 10^6 x kg*m/s/MPa
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 2000 10^6 x kg*m/s/MPa

stem_mass_fraction

  • label: Stem mass fraction
  • description: Ratio of stem dry mass to total plant dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 g/g

stem_N_per_dry_mass

  • label: Stem nitrogen (N) content per unit stem dry mass
  • description: Stem nitrogen (N) content per unit stem dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1000 mg/g

basal_diameter

  • label: Stem diameter
  • description: Diameter at the base of the plant, usually “DBH” except in short plants; only “maximum” values are included
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 5000 mm

stomatal_resistance_conductance_ambient

  • label: Leaf resistance conductance under ambient conditions
  • description: Leaf stomatal resistance under ambient conditions. This is the original way leaf stomatal conductance was measured and reported and is still regularly used in environmental models and meteorology. An equation converts between resistance conductance and the molar values obtained through gas exchange readings (“Plants and Microclimate” by H.G. Jones (1992), page 55 and Appendix 3; “Elevated Carbon Dioxide Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations” by M.B. Kirkham (2011), page 149).
  • type: numeric
  • units: cm/s
  • allowable range: 1e-04 - 10 cm/s

stomatal_conductance_per_area_ambient

  • label: Stomatal conductance per unit leaf area under ambient conditions
  • description: Rate of water loss through stomata under ambient conditions, per unit leaf area
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmolH2O/m2/s
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 2000 mmolH2O/m2/s

stomatal_conductance_per_area_at_Amax

  • label: Stomatal conductance per unit leaf area under saturated light and CO2 conditions
  • description: Rate of water loss through stomata, per unit leaf area under saturated light and CO2 conditions
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmolH2O/m2/s
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 2000 mmolH2O/m2/s

stomatal_conductance_per_area_at_Asat

  • label: Stomatal conductance per unit leaf area under saturated light conditions
  • description: Rate of water loss through stomata, per unit leaf area under saturated light conditions
  • type: numeric
  • units: mmolH2O/m2/s
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 2000 mmolH2O/m2/s

stomatal_density_abaxial

  • label: Stomatal density on the lower leaf surface
  • description: Stomatal density on the lower leaf surface
  • type: numeric
  • units: count/mm2
  • allowable range: 1 - 1000 count/mm2

stomatal_density_adaxial

  • label: Stomatal density on the upper leaf surface
  • description: Stomatal density on the upper leaf surface
  • type: numeric
  • units: count/mm2
  • allowable range: 0 - 1000 count/mm2

stomatal_density_average

  • label: Stomatal density averaged across both leaf surfaces
  • description: Stomatal density averaged across both leaf surfaces
  • type: numeric
  • units: count/mm2
  • allowable range: 0 - 1000 count/mm2

stomatal_distribution

  • label: Stomatal distribution
  • description: Distribution of stomatal across the two leaf surfaces
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • amphistomatic: Leaves with stomata on both leaf surfaces
    • amphistomatic_uneven: Leaves with stomata on both leaf surfaces, but more stomata on the lower leaf surface
    • hypostomatic: Leaves that only have stomata on the lower (abaxial) leaf surface

stomatal_hairs

  • label: Whether or not stomata are covered by hairs
  • description: Binary variable describing whether or not stomata are covered by dense hairs
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • stomata_covered_with_dense_hairs: Stomata densely covered by dense hairs
    • stomata_not_covered_by_hairs: Stomata not hair-covered

support_fraction

  • label: Fraction of shoot dry mass that is stems (versus leaves)
  • description: Fraction of shoot dry mass that is stems (versus leaves)
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 g/g

tap_root

  • label: Tap root
  • description: Binary variable describing whether or not a plant has a tap root
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • tap_root_absent: tap root not present
    • tap_root_present: tap root present
    • tap_root_sometimes_present: tap root sometimes present

thickest_root_diameter

  • label: Thickest root diameter
  • description: Diameter of the thickest root
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1000 mm

twig_area

  • label: Terminal twig cross-sectional area
  • description: Cross-sectional area of the terminal twig
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm2
  • allowable range: 0.05 - 50 mm2

twig_length

  • label: Terminal twig length
  • description: Length of the terminal twig
  • type: numeric
  • units: mm
  • allowable range: 1 - 1000 mm

vapor_pressure_deficit

  • label: Vapor pressure deficit
  • description: Vapor pressure deficit across the leaf surface
  • type: numeric
  • units: kPa
  • allowable range: 0 - 5 kPa

vegetative_regeneration

  • label: Ability to regenerate and spread through the growth and division of vegetative material.
  • description: Ability to regenerate and spread through the growth and division of vegetative material. Although most taxa displaying vegetative spread resprout following fire, this trait is not explicitly about fire response; traits better suited to capture a taxon’s response to fire are “fire_response”, “fire_response_detailed”, and “regen_strategy”
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • not_vegetative: Plant that regenerate and spread only by seed
    • vegetative: Generic term including all plants that can regenerate and spread through the growth and division of vegetative material, not just from seed; examples include runners, rhizomes, and bulbs

vessel_diameter

  • label: Diameter of xylem vessels in stems
  • description: Diameter of xylem vessels in stems
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 1 - 1000 um

vessel_diameter_leaves

  • label: Diameter of xylem vessels in leaves
  • description: Diameter of xylem vessels in leaves
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 1 - 250 um

vessel_diameter_hydraulic

  • label: Hydraulic mean diameter of xylem vessels
  • description: Hydraulic diameter (hydraulically weighted diameter) is based on the equivalent circle diameter D and has been introduced to reflect the actual conductance of conduits. Based on the Hagen–Poiseuille law, a few large conduits may transport an equal amount of water as many small ones.
  • type: numeric
  • units: um
  • allowable range: 1 - 500 um

vessel_density

  • label: Count of vessels per area in stems
  • description: Count of vessels per area in stems
  • type: numeric
  • units: count/mm2
  • allowable range: 0.4 - 2000 count/mm2

vessel_density_leaves

  • label: Count of vessels per area in leaves
  • description: Count of vessels per area in leaves
  • type: numeric
  • units: count/mm2
  • allowable range: 1 - 50000 count/mm2

vessel_lumen_fraction

  • label: Fraction of xylem vessels comprised of lumen
  • description: Fraction of xylem vessels comprised of lumen
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 dimensionless

vessel_multiple_fraction

  • label: Index for the tendency of vessels to occur in clusters (smaller value) versus occur as solitary vessels (1)
  • description: Vmf; A vessel grouping index, the number of groups of vessels (vessels in direct contact with one another) divided by the total number of vessels (Scholz et al. 2013). A Vmf value approximating 1 denotes a tendency towards solitary vessels.
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 dimensionless

vessel_non_lumen_fraction

  • label: Fraction of xylem vessels comprised of non-lumen
  • description: Fraction of xylem vessels comprised of non-lumen
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 dimensionless

vessel_wall_fraction

  • label: Fraction of xylem vessels comprised of cell wall
  • description: Fraction of xylem vessels comprised of cell wall
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 dimensionless

vulnerability_index

  • label: Ratio of vessel diameter to vessel density
  • description: The ratio of vessel diameter to vessel density, as an index of sap conductance and susceptibility to vessel cavitation
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.05 - 1000 dimensionless

water_logging_tolerance

  • label: Water-logging tolerance
  • description: Ability of taxon to tolerate water-logged soils
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • not_applicable: Taxa is not typically confronted with waterlogging and its response is unknown
    • <1_month: Taxa able to tolerate less than 1 month of waterlogging
    • 1-6_months: Taxa able to tolerate 1-6 months of waterlogging
    • >6_months: Taxa able to tolerate more than 6 months of waterlogging
    • aquatic: Taxa truly aquatic and able to be permanantly inundated

wood_axial_parenchyma_fraction

  • label: Fraction of wood comprised of axial parenchyma
  • description: Fraction of wood comprised of axial parenchyma
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 dimensionless

wood_conduit_fraction

  • label: Fraction of wood comprised of all conduits
  • description: Fraction of wood comprised of all conduits
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 dimensionless

wood_fibre_fraction

  • label: Fraction of wood comprised of fibres
  • description: Fraction of wood comprised of fibres
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 dimensionless

wood_ray_fraction

  • label: Fraction of wood comprised of rays
  • description: Fraction of wood comprised of rays
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 1 dimensionless

wood_tracheid_fraction

  • label: Fraction of wood comprised of tracheids
  • description: Fraction of wood comprised of tracheids
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 0 - 1 dimensionless

vein_angle_secondary

  • label: Angle of secondary veins
  • description: Angle of secondary veins
  • type: numeric
  • units: angle
  • allowable range: 0 - 90 angle

vein_density

  • label: Count of veins per distance
  • description: Count of veins per distance
  • type: numeric
  • units: count/mm
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 20 count/mm

vine_climbing_mechanism

  • label: Mechanism vines use to climb
  • description: Mechanism vines use to climb
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • adventitious_roots: roots arising from stem nodes which cling to host plant
    • hooks: Curved stem outgrowths which allow climbers to cling to host plant
    • scrambling: Plant parts supported by host vegetation but no specialized structures employed
    • spines: Straight stem outgrowths which allow climbers to cling to host plant
    • tendrils: Modified stems, leaves or petioles forming a specialized structure for climbing
    • twining: Stems or petioles which coil around host plants

water_band_index

  • label: Water band index
  • description: Water band index, the ratio of the reflectance at 970 nm / 900 nm, recorded from the spectro-radiometer.
  • type: numeric
  • units: dimensionless
  • allowable range: 1 - 1.1 dimensionless

water_potential_midday

  • label: Midday water potential
  • description: A plant’s water potential during the heat of the day
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: -10 - 0 MPa

water_potential_predawn

  • label: Pre-dawn water potential
  • description: A plant’s water potential just before sunrise
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: -8 - 0 MPa

leaf_relative_water_content_predawn

  • label: Leaf relative water content predawn
  • description: Ratio of water in a fresh leaf to water in a saturated leaf; measured pre-dawn
  • type: numeric
  • units: g/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1.4 g/g

water_potential_50percent_lost_conductivity

  • label: Xylem pressure at which 50% of conductivity is lost
  • description: Xylem pressure at which 50% of conductivity is lost
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: -15 - 0 MPa

water_potential_88percent_lost_conductivity

  • label: Xylem pressure at which 88% of conductivity is lost
  • description: Xylem pressure at which 88% of conductivity is lost
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: -15 - 0 MPa

hydraulic_safety_margin_50

  • label: Hydraulic safety margin (versus 50% loss conductivity)
  • description: Difference between minimum observed water potential and water potential at which 50% of conductivity is lost.
  • type: numeric
  • units: MPa
  • allowable range: -5 - 10 MPa

water_use_efficiency_integrated

  • label: Integrated water use efficiency
  • description: WUE; Rate of carbon dioxide uptake relative to water loss, per unit leaf area. This measures how much biomass is produced relative to transpiration, and is therefore an integrated measure of water use efficiency. (Calculated as biomass production / transpiration)
  • type: numeric
  • units: g H2O/g biomass
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 200 g H2O/g biomass

water_use_efficiency_intrinsic

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit stomatal conductance (photosynthetic water use efficiency, PWUE, or intrinsic WUE)
  • description: PWUE calculated as Aarea/gs; Ratio of photosynthesis (CO2 assimilation rate) to stomatal conductance (gs). This is intrinsic water use efficiency.
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/mmolH2O
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 2 umolCO2/mmolH2O

water_use_efficiency_photosynthetic

  • label: Leaf photosynthesis rate per unit leaf transpiration (photosynthetic water use efficiency, PWUE, or instantaneous WUE)
  • description: PWUE calculated as Aarea/E; Ratio of photosynthesis (CO2 assimilation rate) to leaf transpiration (E; water loss). This is also termed instantaneous water use efficiency.
  • type: numeric
  • units: umolCO2/mmolH2O
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 200 umolCO2/mmolH2O

wood_delta13C

  • label: Wood carbon (C) isotope signature (delta 13C)
  • description: Wood carbon stable isotope signature
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -50 - 0 per mille

wood_delta15N

  • label: Wood nitrogen (N) isotope signature (delta 15N)
  • description: Wood nitrogen stable isotope signature
  • type: numeric
  • units: per mille
  • allowable range: -25 - 75 per mille

stem_density

  • label: Stem dry mass per unit fresh stem volume
  • description: Stem dry mass per unit stem fresh volume, specifically for non-woody or partially woody stems that otherwise are outliers for wood density
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mm3
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 1.4 mg/mm3

wood_density

  • label: Stem dry mass per unit fresh stem volume
  • description: Stem dry mass per unit stem fresh volume (stem specific density or SSD or wood density)
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/mm3
  • allowable range: 0.05 - 1.4 mg/mm3

wood_C_per_dry_mass

  • label: Wood carbon (C) content per unit wood dry mass
  • description: Wood carbon (C) content per unit wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 50 - 750 mg/g

wood_N_per_dry_mass

  • label: Wood nitrogen (N) content per unit wood dry mass
  • description: Wood nitrogen (N) content per unit wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

wood_P_per_dry_mass

  • label: Wood phosphorus (P) content per unit wood dry mass
  • description: Wood phosphorus (P) content per unit wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 10 mg/g

wood_K_per_dry_mass

  • label: Wood potassium (K) content per unit wood dry mass
  • description: Wood potassium (K) content per unit wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 100 mg/g

wood_Ca_per_dry_mass

  • label: Wood calcium (Ca) content per unit wood dry mass
  • description: Wood calcium (Ca) content per unit wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 10 mg/g

wood_Mg_per_dry_mass

  • label: Wood magnesium (Mg) content per unit wood dry mass
  • description: Wood magnesium (Mg) content per unit wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 mg/g

wood_Na_per_dry_mass

  • label: Wood sodium (Na) content per unit wood dry mass
  • description: Wood sodium (Na) content per unit wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

dead_wood_N_per_dry_mass

  • label: Dead wood nitrogen (N) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • description: Dead wood nitrogen (N) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

dead_wood_P_per_dry_mass

  • label: Dead wood phosphorus (P) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • description: Dead wood phosphorus (P) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 10 mg/g

dead_wood_K_per_dry_mass

  • label: Dead wood potassium (K) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • description: Dead wood potassium (K) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 mg/g

dead_wood_Ca_per_dry_mass

  • label: Dead wood calcium (Ca) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • description: Dead wood calcium (Ca) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.1 - 100 mg/g

dead_wood_Mg_per_dry_mass

  • label: Dead wood magnesium (Mg) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • description: Dead wood magnesium (Mg) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.01 - 10 mg/g

dead_wood_Na_per_dry_mass

  • label: Dead wood sodium (Na) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • description: Dead wood sodium (Na) content per unit dead wood dry mass
  • type: numeric
  • units: mg/g
  • allowable range: 0.001 - 1 mg/g

woodiness

  • label: Woodiness
  • description: A plant’s degree of lignification in stems
  • type: categorical
  • allowable values:
    • herbaceous: Plant with non-lignified stems
    • semi_woody: Plant with partially lignified stems
    • woody: Plant that produces secondary xylem, have lignin